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研究生:陳晉賢
研究生(外文):Chin- Hsien Chen
論文名稱:飼糧中添加有機硒對泌乳牛產乳品質、健康與繁殖性能之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Dietary Selenium Supplement on Milk Quality, Health and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows
指導教授:鄭長義
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:畜產系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:維生素E乳牛乳成分健康受胎率
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本文係在探討乳牛飼糧中添加有機硒對其產乳中硒濃度、乳成分、體細胞數及對牛隻乳房炎、蹄病之發生率與受胎率之影響。
本研究包括二個試驗,其中試驗一:以分娩2~3個月乳量相近、且胎次相同之泌乳牛40頭、區分為A、B、C、D四組,每組10頭,進行為期三個月之試驗,飼糧給予除對照組僅使用基礎飼糧外,餘三組分別添加有機硒1ppm、2ppm及1ppm+維生素 E 150 IU/kg。泌乳牛在餵食試驗飼糧前及餵飼三週後開始採樣測定乳中硒濃度及乳成分分析,並記錄乳房炎、蹄病之發生與受胎率等資料分析。試驗二為長期群飼養試驗,選定A、B兩酪農牧場進行為期一年之記錄與分析,其中A場泌乳牛60頭逢機區分為P對照組30頭、Q處理組30頭,P組給予基礎飼糧,Q組給予基礎飼糧+1ppm有機硒,而B場泌乳牛85頭全部給予基礎飼糧+1ppm有機硒,試驗方法及分析項目同試驗一。
本研究結果顯示:試驗一在乳中硒濃度方面;處理組(添加硒)與對照組(無添加硒)之間有極顯著差異(p<0.01),但不因有機硒添加量之增加而隨著提高(p>0.05)。又乳牛飼糧中添加有機硒可顯著降低體細胞數(p<0.05),但三處理組間則無差異。在乳成分中之無脂固形物,四組均無顯著差異(p>0.05),但乳脂肪、乳蛋白、乳糖及乳量則有組間之顯著差異(p<0.05)。血檢值除肝功能指數r-麩胺醯轉換酶(r-glutamyltransferase,GGT)在處理組與對照組之間有顯著差異(p<0.05)之外,其餘鉀、氯、膽固醇、鈣/磷比、血清白蛋白與乳酸去氫酶等含量都無影響(p>0.05)。但於受胎率方面則有改善現象,三個添加組之受胎所需的平均配種次數比對照組分別減少了0.33、0.44及0.66次。
由試驗二之群飼養試驗結果顯示:添加有機硒處理組無論是體細胞數、乳房炎、蹄病之發生率都比對照組顯著降低(p<0.05)。在乳成分方面包括比重、酸度、蛋白質、脂肪等四項都沒有顯著差異,但在A場(加硒)處理組在固形物方面顯著高於對照組(p<0.05)。
綜合個別及群飼養試驗結果顯示:乳牛飼糧中添加1ppm有機硒就可達到牛隻生理轉換於乳中之最大接受量(p<0.01),並可顯著降低乳中體細胞數(p<0.05)。
又由乳房炎及蹄病之發生率,顯示添加有機硒可明顯減少(p<0.05),此對提升牛隻免疫力上具有意義。
並由配種受胎率與肝功能指數(GGT)之成績,得知乳牛飼糧中添加有機硒比對照組有更佳的表現,至於添加硒對乳產量及乳成分中之乳脂肪、乳蛋白、乳糖含量則無影響(p>0.05)。
摘 要…………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
中文摘要……………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………….Ⅲ
誌 謝……………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
目 錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅷ
表次索引……………………………………………………………..…Ⅹ
圖次索引………………………………………………………..…… Ⅰ
壹、前言………………….…………………………………………….1
貳、文獻探討…………………………………………………………….3
一、硒的來源……………………………………………..……….3
(一)地球上硒的分佈……………………………………………4
(二)低硒的地區…………………………………………………8
(三)高硒的地區…………………………………………………9
(四)植物中硒的形式………………………………….………...9
(五)有機硒與無機硒的差異…………………………………..10
二、硒的生理作用……………………………………………….16
(一)硒的化學形式……………………………………………16
(二)硒的生物學活性……………………………….…………17
(三)抗氧化功能………………………………………………19
(四)促進甲狀腺素之代謝…………………………………….20
(五)提高免疫機能……………………………………………22
(六)提升繁殖力……………………………………………….23
(七)提升紅血球的攜氧能力…………………………………24
(八)解毒作用………………………………………………24
(九)與維生素 E共同保護細胞作用………………………25
三、硒的吸收與代謝………………………………………..……26
(一)硒的吸收…………………………………………………..26
(二)硒的代謝….……………………………………………….27
(三)硒的生物利用率…………………………………………..28
四、硒的缺乏及中毒之症狀………………………………………28
(一)硒缺乏的症狀……………………………………………29
(二)硒中毒的症狀……………………………………………30
五、乳牛對硒的需求量……………………………………………30
六、硒對乳牛的作用………………………………………………32
(一)促進生長作用……………………………………………32
(二)抗冷緊迫作用……………………………………………33
(三)減少白肌病………………………………………………33
(四)提升免疫力……………………………………………….33
(五)減少繁殖障礙…………………………………………….35
七、牛乳體細胞數與乳產量及乳中成分之相關性………………37
八、乳房炎與體細胞數及硒濃度關係……………………………38
參、材料及方法……………………………………………………….40
一、試驗一……………………………………………………….40
(一)試驗期間………………………………………………40
(二)試驗材料…………………………………………………40
(三)試驗方法…………………………………………………40
二、試驗二……………………………………………………….43
(一)試驗期間…………………………………………………43
(二)試驗材料…………………………………………………43
(三)試驗方法………………………………………………….44
三、採樣處理與測定方法……………………………………45
(一)採樣處理………………………………………………….45
(二)分析項目與方法…………………………………………45
四、統計分析……………………………………………………..49
肆、結果與討論…………………………………………………………50
一、牛乳中含硒量…………………………………………………50
二、牛乳物理性狀…………………………………………………51
三、牛乳中體細胞數…………………………………………….54
四、乳產量……………….………………………………………56
五、各種乳成分與飼糧中有機硒含量之關係……………………57
(一)乳脂肪與飼糧中有機硒含量之關係……………………57
(二)乳蛋白質與飼糧中有機硒含量之關係…………………59
(三)乳糖與飼糧中有機硒含量之關係………………………..61
(四)無脂固形物與飼糧中有機硒含量之關係………………62
六、乳房炎及與體細胞數之關係…………………………………64
七、蹄病的發生率………………………………………………..65
八、對配種受胎率的影響…………………………………………67
九、血液生化值……………………………………………………69
伍、結論……………………………………………………………….71
陸、參考文獻…………………………………………………………..72
作者簡介…………………………………………………………82
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