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研究生:張雲喬
論文名稱:肉雞飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對生長性能、血液性狀和腸道微生物之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of dietary probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics on growth performance, blood characteristics and gut microflora of broilers
指導教授:謝豪晃謝豪晃引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:畜產系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:白肉雞生菌劑益生劑合生劑
外文關鍵詞:broilersprobioticsprebioticssynbiotics
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
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本研究之目的,旨在探討肉雞飼糧中添加生菌劑(Probiotics)、益生劑(Prebiotics)和合生劑(Synbiotics)對生長性能、血中膽固醇、三酸甘油酯、高密度脂蛋白、免疫球蛋白和腸道微生物之影響。
試驗動物為購自商業孵化場之一日齡愛拔益加肉雛雞240隻,逢機分成四個處理組,每處理三重複,每重複20隻。試驗期間為六週,分為生長前期(1-3週)及生長後期(4-6週),飼料及飲水均採任食;以玉米-大豆粕為主要原料,配製基礎飼糧。試驗一之處理組分別為對照組、生菌劑組(Acid-Pak 4-Way®)、益生劑組(Bio-Mos®)和合生劑組(Acid-Pak 4-Way®加Bio-Mos®)。試驗二之處理組分別為對照組、生菌劑組(All-Lac®)、益生劑組(Bio-Mos®)和合生劑組(All-Lac®加Bio-Mos®)。測定雞隻生長性能、血中總膽固醇、三酸甘油酯、高密度脂蛋白、免疫球蛋白、腸道菌相及腸道型態變化。
試驗結果顯示︰
1.試驗一飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對全期生長性能並無顯著差異,但是其中以合生劑組對4∼6週齡肉雞的體增重有降低之情形 (P<0.05)。試驗二,飼糧中添加生菌劑組與合生劑組降低3週齡雞隻體重 (P<0.05),但到達6週齡時雞隻體重與飼料轉換率則各處理組之間無顯著差異。
2.試驗一飼糧中添加生菌劑的雞隻血清膽固醇濃度較低,但血清中的三酸甘油酯相對較高,且在統計上有顯著差異 (P<0.05);試驗二結果顯示,各處理組對血清中總膽固醇、三酸甘油酯和高密度脂蛋白濃度均無顯著影響 (P>0.05)。
3.不論三週齡或六週齡於飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞血液中免疫球蛋白濃度並無顯著影響 (P>0.05)。
4.試驗一飼糧中添加合生劑可以顯著降低六週齡肉雞十二指腸
和盲腸內容物中之桿菌數(P<0.05),益生劑組之盲腸內容物中之桿菌數也顯著比對照組低(P<0.05),但十二指腸桿菌數則無顯著差異。試驗二的結果顯示,益生劑組和合生劑組可以顯著降低三週齡迴腸內容物之桿菌數(P<0.05),盲腸內容物中之桿菌數則以生菌劑組顯著比對照組低(P<0.05);在六週齡腸內菌落分佈之測定,在各處理組之間迴腸內容物之桿菌數並無顯著差異,盲腸內容物之桿菌數仍以益生劑組顯著比對照組低(P<0.05)。各處理組於三週齡或六週齡對迴腸、盲腸內容物和糞便中的乳酸桿菌數皆無顯著影響。
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics on the growth performance, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, immunoglobulin and gut microflora of broilers.
Two hundred and forty day-old commercial broiler chicks in each experiment were randomly divided into 12 pens with 20 chicks in each pen. The experimental period was six weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There were four dietary treatments in Exp. 1, which consist of the basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with either probiotics (Acid-Pak 4-Way®), prebiotics (Bio-Mos®) and synbiotics (Acid-Pak 4-Way® and Bio-Mos®). In Exp. 2 there were also four dietary treatments which consist of the basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with either probiotics (All-Lac®), prebiotics (Bio-Mos®) and synbiotics (All-Lac®and Bio-Mos®). At 21 and 42d of age, the data from each experiment of growth performance, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, immunoglobulin and gut microflora were collected for analysis and determination.
The results showed:
1. In experiment 1, there were no significant differences among probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics groups. Howere, body weight gain from 4 to 6 wks of age of chickens fed synbiotics was significantly lower (P<0.05) than other groups. In experiment 2, body weight gain from 1 to 3 wks of age of chickens fed probiotics and synbiotics weres significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of the control birds. There were no significant differences in body weight gain and feed:gain from 1-6 wks of age between treatment groups.
2. In Exp. 1, the serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) for broilers fed diet containing probiotics than the control group. There were no significantly differences in serum cholesterol levels among all treatment groups. In Exp. 2, there were also no significant differences in the serum cholesterol , triglyceride and high density lipoprotein between treatment groups throughout the experimental period of 1 to 6 wks of age.
3. There were no significant differences in the blood immunoglobulin between treatment groups throughout the experimental period of 1 to 6 wks of age.
4. In Exp. 1, coliforms counts in duodenum and caecum of birds receiving synbiotics at 6 wks of age were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of control birds. Coliforms counts in caecum of birds receiving prebiotics at 6 wks of age was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of control birds. In Exp. 2, at 3 wks of age, coliforms counts in ileum of birds receiving prebiotics and synbiotics were significantly decreased (P<0.05) than those of control birds. Coliforms counts in caecum were also significantly lower (P<0.05) in broilers fed probiotics. At 6 wks of age, coliforms counts in caecum were significantly lower (P<0.05) in broilers fed prebiotics, and no significant difference in ileum coliforms counts among all treatment groups was found. However , the broilers fed with probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics did not significantly increase the lactobacilli population in the ileum, caecum and fecal.
中文摘要………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………….Ⅳ
誌謝……………………………………………………….………Ⅶ
目錄……………………………………………………………….Ⅸ
圖次索引……………………………………………………….ⅩⅢ
表次索引…………………………………………………….…ⅩⅤ
壹、 前言…………………………………………………………1
貳、 文獻探討……………………………………………………4
一、 家禽胃腸道內微生物的發育………………………………4
二、 消化道中微生物的競爭性排除作用………………………8
三、 生菌劑(Probiotics)………………………………….14
(一)、 生菌劑的定義……………………………………...14
(二)、 生菌劑之菌種……………………………….……..15
(三)、 生菌劑之條件……………………………………...17
(四)、 生菌劑的作用機制………………………………...18
1. 維持消化道內有益菌的優勢……………………………….18
2. 提高消化率、促進生長……………………………….……19
3. 降低腸道及墊料中氨氣的產生…………………………….20
4. 降低有害菌酵素的活性…………………………………….21
5. 增加腸道中消化酶的作用活性…………………………….21
6. 提高宿主動物的免疫力…………………………………….22
7. 降低宿主動物的血液膽固醇……………………………….23
四、 益生劑(Prebiotics)……………………….…………24
(一)、 益生劑的定義………………………….…….…….24
(二)、 寡醣的構造…………………………………….…..25
(三)、 益生劑需具備的條件……………………….……..28
(四)、 益生劑的作用機制………………………………...28
1. 吸附病原菌及阻斷病原菌的增殖……………………….…29
2. 對免疫反應的刺激………………………………………….31
3. 提供病原菌無法使用的營養分…………………………….32
五、 合生劑(Synbiotics)……..……………….…………34
參、 材料與方法………………………………….……………35
一、 試驗動物及飼養管理…………………….…..…………35
(一)、生長試驗…………………………….……….……..35
二、 試樣之採集…………………………….…………..……38
(一)、血液之採集………………………………………..…38
(二)、腸道組織樣品收集…………………………………..38
三、 測定項目及分析方法………………….………………..39
(一)、腸道菌相之分析…………………………….……...39
(二)、掃描式電子顯微鏡組織切片之觀察………........40
(三)、血液性狀分析…………………………….………...41
四、 統計分析…………………………………………..…….43
肆、 結果與討論………………………………….……………44
一、對雞隻生長性能之影響……………...………………...44
二、對雞隻血液性狀之影響……………………………..…..52
(一)、總膽固醇、三酸甘油酯和高密度脂蛋白濃度…..…52
(二)、免疫球蛋白濃度……………………………….….…55
三、對雞隻腸道之影響………………..…………………....58
(一)、腸內菌相……………………………………….….…58
(二)、腸道型態變化………………………………….…….63
伍、 結論…………………………………………………….…71
陸、 參考文獻…………………………………………….……72
附錄一、 Acid-Pak 4-Way®成分……..………….………...85
附錄二、 Bio-Mos®成分……………………….…..…………85
附錄三、 All-Lac®成分…………………..….….………….86
作者簡介……………………………………….……………….87
圖次索引
圖2-1. 家禽消化道5個部分的菌叢︰嗉囊、前胃、砂囊、
小腸、盲腸與結腸……………………………………….7
圖2-2. 腸道中有益菌和病原菌競爭營養分和附著位置………10
圖2-3. 腸道中有益菌的競爭排除作用
(A)有益菌與病原菌競爭並將病原菌排除………….….11
(B)病原菌吸附非腸壁部分的寡醣……………………..11
圖2-4. 動物消化道中有益菌對動物的影響…………….….…..13
圖2-5. 寡醣的構造………………………….…………….……..26
圖2-6. 甘露聚寡糖的結構式…………………………..………..27
圖2-7. 大腸桿菌以繖附著於上皮細胞表面……………..……..30
圖4-1. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對3週齡
肉雞十二指腸絨毛型態之影響…...…………….……...64
圖4-2. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對3週齡
肉雞迴腸絨毛型態之影響……………...……………....65
圖4-3. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對6週齡
肉雞十二指腸絨毛型態之影響…….………………..66
圖4-4. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對6週齡
肉雞迴腸絨毛型態之影響……..…………….……....67
圖4-5. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對6週齡
肉雞盲腸絨毛型態之影響…….……………..……....68
表次索引
表2-1. 美國食品藥物管理局(FDA)認可的生菌劑
微生物菌種……………………………………………...16
表3-1. 試驗基礎飼糧組成…………….……...……………....…36
表4-1. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
生長性能之影響(試驗一)………………………………45
表4-2. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
生長性能之影響(試驗二)………………………………47
表4-3. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
血液性狀之影響(試驗一)………………………………53
表4-4. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
血液性狀之影響(試驗二)………………………………54
表4-5. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
血中免疫球蛋白之影響(試驗二)………….…………...57
表4-6. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
腸道中桿菌數之影響(試驗一)…………………………60
表4-7. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
腸道中桿菌數之影響(試驗二)………...……………….61
表4-8. 飼糧中添加生菌劑、益生劑和合生劑對肉雞
腸道中乳酸桿菌之影響(試驗二)………..…………….62
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