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研究生:莊見財
研究生(外文):Chien Tsai Chuang
論文名稱:利用理論傳輸模式論證PCDD/Fs於環境介質中之流布
論文名稱(外文):Assess PCDD/Fs Transfer in The Environmental Medium by a Mass Balance Model
指導教授:林傑林傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chieh Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:PCDDsPCDFs顆粒相(particle phase)氣相(vapor phase)
外文關鍵詞:PCDD/Fspolychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofuransPICsProducts of Incomplete CombustionIncinerator
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戴奧辛類化合物(polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins╱polychlorinated dibenzofurans,簡稱PCDD/Fs)以許多形態之異構物存在於環境中;依氯原子鍵結數目與位置不同,PCDDs共有75種異構物而PCDFs則有135種,其物化性質及毒性皆不同。PCDD/Fs在常態下無論酸、鹼環境中皆非常穩定,一旦形成極難分解。本研究主要目的為了解PCDD/Fs於環境介質中之主要傳輸途徑是由空氣至植體(air-to-plant)或土壤至植體(soil-to- plant)。大氣中PCDD/Fs根據吸附理論可分配(partition)為顆粒相(particle phase)及氣相(vapor phase);本論文藉由理論傳輸模式預估PCDD/Fs由大氣傳輸到土壤、植物的分布情形,其顆粒相PCDD/Fs沉降到植物,以及氣候條件從植物表面的淋洗,是使用一階的氣候常數(the first order weathering constant);氣相 PCDD/Fs傳輸到植物是使用air-to-plant的模式,氣相PCDD/Fs為傳輸到植物之主要支配者,而不是由soil-to-plant。植物中PCDD/Fs,由模式預測結果大致與實測濃度一致,唯OCDD及OCDF例外。焚化爐附近土壤中PCDD/Fs,由模式預測結果大致與實測濃度一致;美國鄉村土壤中PCDD/Fs利用模式推估結果,比實測濃度低約2~10倍(PCDDs實測濃度0.88~237ng/kg,預測濃度0.12~69.3 ng/kg;PCDFs實測濃度1.59~47ng/kg,預測濃度0.3~4.9 ng/kg),實測濃度與預測濃度有一相似之趨勢,即土壤中的PCDD/Fs含氯數越高者濃度越高。由本篇論文得知氣相PCDD/Fs的傳輸在食物鏈中扮演重要的角色,未來如需更完整探討PCDD/Fs在食物鏈中的傳輸,可利用理論傳輸模式進行論證人類於PCDD/Fs之曝露。

Incineration is recognized as one of the most efficient processes to treat and dispose the waste stream. An obvious advantage of incineration is the large mass and volume reduction. The oxidation of hydrocarbon contents in the waste stream is a very complex process involving both propagation and chain-branching reactions. The higher the carbon atom number of the hydrocarbon, the more complicated is the process. The major concern regarding air pollutant emissions from waste incineration system is to form some organic products of incomplete combustion (PICs) especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Some of them are thermally stable and suspected of being mutagenic and carcinogenic to human. Due to the more stringent regulations of the stack emission, it is the more important in providing an understanding of potential environmental and human health exposure pathways about PCDD/Fs. After the PCDD/Fs emission standard of large scale and small to medium scale incinerator were promulgated, the most hazardous air pollutants were switched from the gas phase (i.e. the flue gas) to solid phase (i.e. the ash matrix) in order to meet the most stringent criteria in the world. The aim of this research is to explore whether PCDD/Fs transfer in the environmental medium that takes place mainly through air-to-plant or soil-to-plant. The primary results of this study are summarized as follows: (1) PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere are partitioned into the particulate phase and vapor phase depend on the oriented chlorination (2) The temperature and the carrier gas are the key dominant parameters varied the distribution of the chlorinated compounds. (3) The concentrations of PCDD/Fs can be estimated based on the mass balance model very consistent with the measured level between the air, the soil and the plant samples near the incinerator facility. (4) Although the concentration discrepancy between the rural soil sample and the modeling results, the homologue patterns of PCDD/Fs is similar to each other. (5) The vapor phase PCDD/Fs transformation plays a crucial role in the food chain and the theoretical model will be further applied to understand the human exposure to PCDD/Fs.

總目錄
中文摘要 …………………………………………………… Ⅰ
英文摘要 …………………………………………………… Ⅲ
誌謝 ………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
總目錄 ……………………………………………………… Ⅵ
圖目錄 ……………………………………………………… Ⅷ
表目錄 ……………………………………………………… Ⅹ
第一章 前言 ……………………………………………… 1
1.1 研究緣起 ……………………………………………… 1
1.2 研究目的 ……………………………………………… 2
1.3 研究內容 ……………………………………………… 3
第二章 文獻回顧 ………………………………………… 5
2.1 戴奧辛的來源 ………………………………………… 5
2.2 戴奧辛的物理化學性質 ……………………………… 6
2.3 戴奧辛的毒理特性 …………………………………… 8
2.4 世界各國空氣中戴奧辛濃度分布 …………………… 11
2.5 大氣中戴奧辛之氣/顆粒相分布 …………………… 18
2.6 氣/顆粒相分布對PCDD/Fs在環境中移除機制之影響 26
2.7 戴奧辛於焚化過程中之生成機制 ……………… 29
第三章 研究方法 ………………………………………… 31
3.1 環境介質中戴奧辛數據取得的來源 ………………… 31
3.2 數學模式的引用說明 ………………………………… 33
第四章 結果與討論 ……………………………………… 40
4.1 大氣中PCDD/Fs的濃度 ……………………………… 40
4.2 植物及土壤中PCDD/Fs的濃度 ……………………… 44
4.3 大氣中氣/顆粒相PCDD/Fs的預測結果 …………… 49
4.4 植物體中PCDD/Fs的預測結果 ……………………… 55
4.5 土壤中PCDD/Fs的預測結果 ………………………… 60
4.6 PCDD/Fs百分組成之比較 ………………………… 64
第五章 結論與建議 ……………………………………… 74
5.1 結論 …………………………………………………… 74
5.2 建議 …………………………………………………… 76
參考文獻 …………………………………………………… 78
作者簡介 …………………………………………………… 87

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