跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.210.237.158) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/09/25 23:40
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:高仁和
研究生(外文):Kao Jen Ho
論文名稱:以測站平行檢測及逆軌跡模式探討潮州地區高PM10濃度之成因
論文名稱(外文):Study of The Causes of High PM10 in Chao-Chou Area by Parallel Examination of Air Quality Monitoring Station and Backward Trajectory
指導教授:陳瑞仁陳瑞仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen Shui Jen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:175
中文關鍵詞:空氣品質指標大氣懸浮微粒逆軌跡模擬
外文關鍵詞:PSISuspended ParticulateBackward Trajectory
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:16
  • 點閱點閱:1117
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:145
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
屏東縣潮州測站為行政院環境保護署所設之一般大氣測站,自民國83年運轉監測以來,其歷年懸浮微粒(PM10)之年平均濃度及日平均第八大值皆較目前空氣品質標準(年平均濃度65 g/m3及日平均濃度125 g/m3)超過甚多。尤其民國88年該站PM10之年平均濃度(92 g/m3)較民國87年之年平均濃度(74 g/m3)增加約27﹪,且近四年來該站PM10日平均濃度超過150 g/m3(PSSI>100)之日數(分別為87年36日、88年57日、89年72日及90年16日)。顯示潮州地區大氣懸浮微粒污染之嚴重性,而應進一步加以重視及作深入探討。
為瞭解潮州站周圍之揚塵是否為PM10之主要來源及潮州站是否可反映整個潮州鎮之空氣品質,本研究除在潮州站利用PM10高量採樣器於污染事件日(PSSI>100)期間(民國89年3月23至30日)進行連續多日之PM10採樣,且同時於距離該測站約4公里處之光華國小(光華站)亦同步進行PM10採樣,以比較潮州與光華站兩站PM10之檢測結果。此外於民國91年1月11至18日期間在潮州站擺置一架PM10自動監測儀器(PM10 β-gauge儀)以平行檢測方式驗證測站自動監測儀器之代表性。本研究亦在潮州站以PM10及MOUDI採樣,以探討微粒之水溶性成份及粒徑(0.056~18μm)分佈特性。最後藉由ISCST3模式及經由模擬風場計算並配合逆軌跡模擬,反推氣團內形成高濃度污染物之前所行經之地區,以分析潮州地區高PM10濃度之成因與可能污染來源。
研究結果發現:於本研究採樣期間,潮州與光華兩測站空氣品質測值之差異性不大(兩測站PM10日平均濃度值之R2值為0.92),顯示設於目前位置之潮州站,其監測之結果應可代表整個潮州地區之空氣品質。分析PM10上之水溶性離子成份發現:潮州及光華二測站其PM10微粒中水溶性離子主要以二次氣膠(SO4-2、NO3-及NH4+)為主要物種,其佔PM10之比例為約50﹪,其中以NO3-與PM10之相關性較高(R2=0.8012),其佔PM10之含量平均為16.65﹪;NO3-及NH4+對PM10引起之空氣品質惡化有相當程度貢獻。微粒上之SO4-2雖在PM10上佔有高比例(約30﹪),然其含量並不隨PM10濃度升高而增加。以ISCST3模式推估屏東縣各污染源排放粒狀物對潮州站之貢獻,模擬結果顯示;屏東縣內各污染源排放粒狀物對潮州站PM10之貢獻濃度為16.5 g/m3,其值較測站之測值為低,表示潮州站之PM10來自屏東縣境內貢獻之比例很小。再由逆軌跡模式模擬污染物之經過路徑顯示:造成屏東縣空氣品質惡化之可能原因除污染物係由北方污染源傳輸至屏東縣內造成累積所貢獻外;另由SOx及NOx經光化學反應形成之SO4-2及NO3-亦會導致潮州地區PM10濃度增加。
關鍵字:空氣品質指標;大氣懸浮微粒;逆軌跡模擬
Chao-Chou air quality monitoring station in Ping-Tung county was one of the ordinary air quality monitoring stations established by EPA, since it’s operation in 1994, the annual and daily 8th average concentration of PM10 had always been observed much higher than those of air quality standard (annual average concentration is 65g/m3, daily average concentration is 125 g/m3). Especially in 1999, the annual average concentration of PM10 (90.8 g/m3) was 27% higher than that of in 1998 (71.5 g/m3). In those four years, the number of days that daily average concentration of PM10 was higher than 150 g/m3 (PSSI>100) has increasing year by year (36, 57, 72, and 16 days in 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively). These data shows that the pollution situation of suspended particulate in Chao-Chou area is critical and worthy of the further research.
To discuss the distribution of concentration of PM10 versus time and space, we not only analyzed the auto-monitored data gained from Chao-Chou air quality monitoring station, but also used high-volume sampler to take PM10 samples and analyzed the composition whenever PSSI>100 from Mar 23, 2000 to Mar 30, 2000. Besides, micro-orifice uniform deposit impact (MOUDI) was also used to collect samples in order to investigate the distribution of particle size of suspended particulates (0.056-18m). To insight whether dusts nearby the station was the major source for PM10 or not, it was taken samples at Kwun-Hwa elementary school (Kwun-Hwa station, 4 kilometers in distances from Chao-Chou station) simultaneously . From Jan 11, 2002 to Jan 23, 2002, to test the precision of auto monitoring devise at Chao-Chou station, another auto monitoring devise had been installed beside that devise so that parallel examination could be done. In addition, ISCST model was used to explore pollution sources of Chao-Chou station, wind-field calculation along with Backward Trajectory were used to research the path that plume traveled before the formation of high-concentration pollutants and analyze the causes and possible sources that contributed to high PM10 concentration in Chao-Chou area.
Based on the result, we found that there was a little difference in air quality between Chao-Chou station and Kuang-Haw station during the sampling period. (the R-squared of daily average concentration for PM10 between these two stations was 0.92). This result indicates that the data obtain from Chao-Chou station is reliable. Besides, applying two auto monitoring devises (PM10 β-gauge)can make the parallel examination. Their results suggested that the error for devises was small. (i.e. R2= 0.6087). From the analysis of both cation and anion concentration of PM10, we found that nitrates concentration in episode and nonepisode varied not too much, while sulfates concentration seemed to be stable. The ISCST3 simulation result showed that primary air pollutants emitted from Ping-Tung county accounted for 16.5 g/m3 of PM10 at Chao-Chou station, which was lower than that actually measured at station. It also showed that only a small portion of PM10 at Chao-Chou station came from Ping-Tung county. Finally, by backward trajectory simulation, air pollutants were assumed to transport from the north to Ping-Tung county, then they accumulated .However, a part of SOx and NOx transferred to sulfates and nitrates via photochemical reaction.
Key Words:PSI;Suspended Particulate;Backward Trajectory
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 V
誌謝 IX
總目錄 X
表目錄 XIII
圖目錄 XV
第一章 前 言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究內容及目標 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 懸浮微粒之定義 5
2.2 懸浮微粒之來源 8
2.3 懸浮微粒之形成機制 12
2.4 懸浮微粒物理特性 15
2.5 懸浮微粒之化學特性 25
2.6 懸浮微粒受氣象條件之影響 40
2.7 空氣品質監測站所使用之監測儀器 45
2.8 ISC3空氣品質擴散模式 47
2.9 逆軌跡模式 51
第三章 研究方法 53
3.1 採樣地點概述 53
3.2 監測及採樣儀器 57
3.3 懸浮微粒(PM10)成份分析 67
3.4 品保與品管 69
3.4.1 採樣方法之品保與品管 69
3.4.2 分析方法之品保與品管 73
3.5 ISCST擴散模式 78
3.6 逆軌跡模式 79
第四章 結果與討論 82
4.1 潮州站及光華站PM10平行檢測 82
4.1.1  PM10高量採樣器與監測站自動監測儀平行檢測 82
4.1.2  PM10自動監測儀(PM10 β-gauge儀)同步監測 84
4.1.3 潮州站(潮南國小)及光華站(光華國小)PM10之平行檢測 88
4.2 連續事件日及單一事件日空氣品質成份分析 92
4.2.1 微粒成份探討 92
4.2.1-1 PM10微粒中之水溶性離子 92
4.2.1-2 水溶性離子與PM10濃度之相關性 93
4.2.1-3 微粒上水溶性離子含量與PM10之相關性 101
4.2.2 潮州站事件日期間PM10成份變化 107
4.2.2-1 PM10微粒中之水溶性離子 107
4.2.2-2 本研究PM10微粒中水溶性離子及衍生性氣膠與其他相關研究比較 114
4.3 事件日中懸浮微粒之粒徑分佈 116
4.4 事件日中大氣懸浮微粒之累積分率 117
4.5 ISCST擴散模式 118
4.6 逆軌跡模式模擬 126
第五章 結論與建議 144
5.1 結論 144
5.2 建議 147
參考文獻 148
附錄……………………………………………………………. 158
王景良,2000,“中部空品區污染源逸散粉塵的組成分析”, 碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中。
李鎌弛,2001,”大氣懸浮微粒有機成分正烷類組成分析„,碩士論文,高雄第一科技大學環境與安全衛生工程研究所,高雄。
李春正,1987,“有害廢棄物焚化系統中金屬分佈之模式分析”,工業污染防治,Vol.23,pp.112-122。
李芝珊、林家和,2000,“PM1/PM2.5/PM10氣膠微粒特性之探討”第八屆氣膠科技研討會論文集,第17頁-21頁
林能暉、李崇德,1995,“大氣污染物之沉降與來源分析(Ⅱ)”,台灣省環保處期末報告。
吳政鴻,1997,“彭佳嶼海域大氣懸浮微粒之化學研究”,碩士論文,國立台灣大學海洋研究所,台北。
屏東縣環境保護局,2000,“屏東地區大氣懸浮微粒粒徑與成份分析調查研究計畫”期末報告。
屏東縣環境保護局,2001,“屏東縣空氣品質管理發展計畫”期末報告。
屏東縣環境保護局,2000,“屏東縣空氣品質監測站位置評估調查計畫”期末報告。
袁中新、袁景嵩、張瑞正、袁菁、張章堂,1998,“台灣南部地區PM2.5及PM10之時空分佈趨勢探討”,第十五屆空氣污染控制技術研討會論文集,pp.694-702。
袁中新、洪崇軒、王宏恩、劉山豪,1999,“台灣地區懸浮微粒物化特徵及生成機制探討” ,1999年氣膠研討會論文輯,第253-261頁。
黃俊發,2000,”Beta gauge效能評估„,碩士論文,國立台灣大學職業醫學與工業衛生研究所,台北
陳昭良,2000,“伴隨全台空氣高污染之綜觀天氣分析” 碩士論文,中國文化大學大氣科學系研究所,台北
陳舜欽,2000,“沙鹿地區大氣中酸性氣體及粗細懸浮微粒特性之研究”,碩士論文,東海大學環境科學系,台中。
陳啟東,2001,”台中地區懸浮微粒特性與來源鑑定之研究„,碩士論文,東海大學環境科學系,台中。
張維嘉,2000,“台灣中部大氣氣膠特性及粒徑分佈-阿里山測站案例分析”,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中。
許凱勝、李曉嵐、林銳敏,2000,“二次氣膠於不同粒徑(PM1/PM2.5/PM10)之分佈研究”,第八屆氣膠科技研討會論文集,第11-16頁
程萬里、張艮輝、顏有利、賴美秀,2000,“探討Bata Gauge與TEOM連續自動監測儀器之系統差異性” 第八屆氣膠科技研討會論文集,第77頁-82頁
楊宏隆,1998,“大氣懸浮微粒PM2.5及PM10之特性及來源分析”,碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中。
詹俊宏,1995,“台灣地區PM10污染特性分析”碩士論文,國立台灣大學環境工程研究所,台北。
鄭淳志,1992,“北桃地區懸浮微粒特性與污染源分析”,碩士論文,國立台灣大學環境工程研究所,台北。
鄭曼婷、鄭光宏、方國權、莊秉潔,1996,“大氣懸浮微粒及水溶性陰陽離子之日夜乾沉降特性”,第十三屆空氣污染控制技術研討會論文專輯,pp.1145-1153。
鄭曼婷、邱嘉斌、黃美倫、王景良,1999,“台中沿海與都會區大氣粗細懸浮微粒特性及污染來源探討”,第十六屆空氣污染控制技術研討會論文集,pp.19-25。
鄭曼婷、黃美倫、葉峻榕、邱伊萍,2001,“酸性空氣污染物的量測分析”,第十八屆空氣污染控制技術研討會論文集,pp.2-27。
賴宏志,2000,”南高屏PM10污染源貢獻量分析及減量效應之評估„碩士論文,國立中興大學環境工程研究所,台中。
環保署,1989,“國家環境空氣品質標準之硫氧化物及懸浮微粒”。
簡弘民、李壽南,2000,“監測站PM10、PM2.5量測比較及污染源分析”第八屆氣膠科技研討會論文集,第22頁-28頁
蕭慧娟,1996,“空氣污染概論”,空氣污染防治專責人員訓練教材。
羅思懿,2001,“導致台灣地區冷季區域性PM10高污染之氣象條件分析”,碩士論文,國立台灣大學大氣科學研究所,台北。
“Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, ”1969, National Air Pollution Control Administration, Pub. No. AP-49.
Appel, B.R., E.M. Hoffer, E.L. Kothny, S.M. Wall, M. Haik, and R.L. Knights, 1979, “Analysis of Carbonaceous Material in Southern California Atmospheric Aerosols, 2.” Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 13, pp. 98 - 104.
Ashbough L. L., 1983,“A Statisical Trajectory Technique for Determining Air Pollution Source Regions,”Journal of Air Pollution Control Association, Vol.33, pp.1096-1098
Cabezudo B., Recio M.,Sanchez-Laulhe J. M., Trigo M. D. M., Toro F. J. and Polvorinos F., 1997, “Atmospheric Transport of Marihuana Pollen from North Africa to the Southwest of Europe, ”Atmospheric Environment, Vol.33, pp.3323-3328.
Cadle, S.H., and P.A. Mulawa, 1990, “Atmospheric Carbonaceous Species Measurement Methods Comparison Study: General Motors Results,” Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol.12, pp.128-141.
Carmichael, G.R., 1996, “Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Composition at Cheju, Korea,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.30, pp.2407-2416.
Cess, R. D., 1983, “Artic Aerosols: Model Estimates of Interactive Influences upon The Surface-Atmosphere Clear-Sky Radiation Budget,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.17, pp.2555-2564.
Chan, Y.C., R.W. Simpson, and P.D. Vowles, 1997, “Characterization of Chemical Species in PM2.5 and PM10 Aerosol in Brisbane, Australia,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.31, pp.3773-3785.
Chen, S. J., G. C. Fang, C.C. Lin, and L. T. Hsieh, 1997, “Dry Deposition and Particle Size Distributions of Nitrate and Sulfate in Ambient Air,” Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, Vol.62, pp.49-64.
Chiapello I., Bergametti G., Chatnet B., Bousquet P., Dulac F. and Soares E. S., 1997, “Origins of African Dust Transport over the Northeastern Tropical Atlantic,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.102, pp.13701-13709.
Chiapello I., Bergametti G., Gomes L., Chatenet B., Dulac F., Pimenta J. and Soares E. S., 1995, “An Additional Low Layer Transport of Sahelian and Saharan Dust over the North-Eastern Tropical Atlantic, ”Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.22, pp.3191-3194.
Chow, J-C, 1992, “A Neighborhood-Scale Study of PM10 Source Contribution in Rubidoux California”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 26A, pp.693-706.
Chow, J-C, J. G. Watson, E.M. Fujuta, Z. Lu, and D.R. Lawson, 1994, “Temporal And Spatial Variations of PM2.5 and PM10 Aerosol in the Southern California Air Quality Study”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.28, pp.2061-2080.
Chu, S-H., 1997, “Meteorological Conditions Conducive to Regional High Particulate Matter Episodes,” Air & Waste Management Association’s 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, June 8-13, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 97-MP112.06.
Dingenen R. V., Raes F. and Jensen N. R., 1995, “Evidence for Anthropogenic Impact on Number Concentration and Sulfate Content of Cloud-Processed Aerosol Particles over the North Atlantic,”Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.100, pp.21057-21067.
Gorsjean, D., 1984, “Particulate Carbon in Los Angeles Air,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol.32, pp.133-145.
Gray, H. A., G. R. Cass, J. J. Huntzicker, E.K. Heyerdahl, and J.A. Rau, 1986, “Characteristics of Atmospherics Organic and Elemental Carbon Particle Concentrations in Los Angeles,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.20, pp.580-589.
Groblicki, P. J., G.T. Wolff, and R.J. Countess, 1981,“Visibility-Reducing Species in The Denver Brown Cloud --- I. Relationships Between Extinction and Chemical Compositions,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.15, pp.2473-2484.
Harrison R.M., C.A. Pio, 1983, “Size-Differentiated Composition of Inorganic Atmospheric Aerosols both Marine and Polluted Continental Origin,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.17, pp.1733-1738.
Hillamo, R.E., V.M. Kerminen, W. Maenhaut, J.L. Jafferezo, S. Balachandran, and C.I. Davidson, 1993, “Size Distributions of Atmospheric Trace Elements at Dye 3, Greenland-I. Distribution Characteristics and Dry Deposition Velocities,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.27A, pp.2787-2802.
Hlavay, J., K. Polyak, I. Bodog, A.Molnar and E. Meszaros, 1996, “Distribution of trace elements in filter-collected aerosol samples,” Journal of Analysis Chemical, Vol.354, 227-232.
Hoppel, W.A., J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, and R. E. Larson, 1990, “Aerosol Size Distributions and Optical Properties Found in the Marine Boundary Layer Over the Atlantic Ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.95, No.D4, pp.3659-3686.
Horvath H., M. Kasahara, and P. Pesava, 1996, “The Size Distribution and Composition of the Atmospheric Aerosol at a Rural and Nearby Urban Location,” Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol.27, pp.417-435.
Mukai H., Tanaka A. and Fujii T., 1994,“ Lead Isotope Ratios of Airborne Particulate Matter as Tracers of Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants Around Japan,” Journal of Geophysical Research , Vol.99, pp.3717-3726.
John, W. S., M. Wall, J. L. Ondo, and W. Winklmayr, 1990, “Modes in the Size Distributions of Atmospheric Inorganic Aerosol,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.24, pp.2349-2359.
Kim, Y.P., K.C. Moon, J.H. Lee, and N.J. Baik, 1999, “Concentrations of Carbonaceous Species in Particles at Seoul and Cheju in Korea,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.33, pp.2751-2758.
Koutrakis, P., and P.K. Brendan, 1993, “Equilibrium Size Acidity and Ambient Relative Humidity,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.8, pp.149-159.
Krivacsy, Z., and A. Molnar, 1998, “Size Distribution of Ions in Atmospheric Aerosols,” Atmospheric Research, Vol.46, pp.279-291.
Lee, C. T., and W.C. Hsu, 1996, “The Source Apportionment of Urban Aerosols from Chemical Properties of Aerosol Spectra Near Atmospheric Sources,” Journal of Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol.19, pp.1-13.
Lin J.J., G.C. Fang, T.M Holsen, and K.E. Noll, 1993, “A Comparison of Dry Deposition Modeled from Size Distribution Data and Measured with a Smooth Surface for Total particle Mass, Lead, and Calcium in Chicago,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.27A, pp.712-724.
Lundgren, D.A., and R.M. Burton, 1995, “Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Cut Point Between Fine and Coarse Ambient Mass Fraction,” Inhalation Toxicology, Vol.7, pp.131-148.
Mamane, Y., 1988, “Estimate of Municipalrefuse incinerator contribution to Philadelphia aerosols source analysis, ” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.22, pp.2411-2418.
McMurry, R.H., and X.Q. Zhang, 1989, “Size Distribution pf Ambient Organic and Elemental Carbon,” Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol.10, pp.430-437.
Mehlmann A. and P. Warneck, 1995, “Atmospheric Gaseous HNO3, Particulate Nitrate, and Aerosol Size Distribution of Major Ionic Species at a Rural Site in Western Germany,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.29, pp.2359-2373.
Meszaros, E., T. Barcza, A.Gelencser, J. Hlavay, Gy. Kiss, Z. Krivacsy, A.Molnar and K. Polyak, 1997, “Size Distribution of Inorganic and Organic Species in the Atmospheric Aerosol in Hungary,” Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol28, pp.1163-1175.
Mueller, P.K., R.W. Mosly, and L.B. Pierce, 1972, “Chemical Composition of Pasadena Aerosol by Particle Size and Time of Day--- IV. Carbonate and Noncarbonate Carbon Content,” Journal of Colloid Interface Science, Vol.39, pp.235-239.
Ning, D.T., L.X. Zhong, and Y.S. Chung, 1996, “Aerosol Size Distribution and Elemental Composition in Urban of Northern China,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.30, pp.2355-2362.
Noll, K.E., P.F. Yuen, and K.Y.P. Fang, 1990, “Atmospheric Coarse Particulate Concentrations and Dry Deposition Fluxes for Ten Metals in Two Urban Environments,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.24A, pp.903-908.
Oberdorster, G. R., M. Gelein, J. Ferin, and B. Welss, 1995, Association of Particulate Air Pollution and Acute Mortality: Involvement of Ultrafine Particles? Inhalation Toxicology, Vol.7, pp. 111-124.
Pakkanen, T. A., 1996, “Study of Formation of Coarse Particle Nitrate Aerosol,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.30, pp.2475-2482.
Pio, C.A., L. M. Castro, M. A. Cerqueira, I. M. Santos, F. Belchior, and M.L. Salgueiro, 1996, “Source Assessment of Particle Air Pollutants Measured at the Southwest European Coast,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.30, pp.3309-3320.
Richard L. A., Gregory R. C. and Jolynne M. R., 1998,“ Seasonal Source-Receptor Relationships in Asia,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.32, No.8, pp.1397-1406.
Rosen, H., and T. Novakov, 1981, “Soot in The Arctic,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.16, pp. 2967-2977.
Schroeder, W. H., M. Dobson, D.M. Kane, and, N.D. Johnson, 1987, “Toxic Tracer Element Associated with Airbone Particulate Matter: A Review”, Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Vol.37, pp.1267-1285.
Serne, J. C. and S.C. Mauch, 1988, “Ambient Air Toxics Monitoring for Greater Detroit Resource Recovery Facility: Inter-Site Comparisions”, AWMA 84th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Vol.91-80, pp.16.
Solomon, P.A., F. Theresa, L. Salmon, G.R. Cass, H.A. Gray, and A. Davidson, 1989, “Chemical Characteristics of PM10 Aerosols Collected in the Los Angeles Area,” Journal of Air Pollution Control Association, Vol.39, pp.154-163.
Stohl A., Wotawa G., Seibert P. and Kromp-kolb H., 1995, “Interpolation Errors in Wind Fields as a Function of Spatial and Temporal Resolution and Their Impact on Different Types of Kinematic Trajectories, Journal of Applied Meteorology, ”Vol.34, pp.2149-2165.
Tang, I. N., H. R. Munkelwitz, and J. G. Davis, 1977,“Aerosol Growth Studies Ⅱ:Preparation and Growth Measurements of Monodisperse Salt Aerosols,”Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol.8, pp.149-159.
Turpin, B.J., and J.J. Huntzicker, 1991, “Secondary Formation of Organic Aerosol in The Los Angeles Basin: A Descriptive Analysis of Organic and Elemental Carbon Concentration,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.25A, pp. 207-215.
Wall, S. M., W. John, and J. L. Ondo, 1988, “Measurement of Aerosol Size Distributions for Nitrate and Major Ionic Species,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.22, pp.1649-1656.
Watson, J.G., and J.C. Chow, 1998, “Clean Sky Visibility as a Challenge for Society,” Workshop on Sampling, Regulation, and Light Scattering Effects of PM2.5, pp.259-284.
Wedepohl, K. H. (1987) “The Composition of the Upper Earth’s Crust and the Natural Cycles of Selected Metals”, Metals and their Compounds in the Environment.
Wei, F., E. Teng, G. Wu, W. Hu, W. E. Wilson, R. S. Chapman, J. C. Pau, and J. Zhong, 1999, “Ambient Concentrations and Elemental Compositions of PM10 and PM2.5 in Four Chinese Cities,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 33, pp. 4188 - 4193.
Whitby, K. T., R. B. Husar, and B. Y. H. Liu, 1972, “The Aerosol Size Distribution of Los Angeles Smog,” Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry, G. M. Hidy, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 237-264.
Wolff, G.T., P.J. Groblicki, and S.H Cadle, 1982, “Particulate Carbon at Various Locations in the United States,” In Particulate carbon Atmospheric Life Cycle, Wolff, G. T. and R. L. Klimisch (Eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp.297-315.
Wolff, G. T., 1984, “On the Nature of Nitrate in Coarse Continental Aerosol, ” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.18, pp.977-981.
Yoshizumi, K., and A. Hoshi, 1985, “Size Distributions of Ammonium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrate in Atmospheric Aerosol,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.19, pp.258-261.
Zhang, X., B.J.Turpin, P.H. McMurry, S.V. Hering, and M.R. Sttolzenburg, 1994, “Mie Theroy Evaluation of Species Contributions to 1990 Wintertime Visibility Reduction in the Grand Canyon,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Vol.44, pp.153-162.
Zhuang, H., C. K. Chang, M. Fang, and A. S. Wexler, 1999, “Formation of Nitrate and Non-sea-salt Sulfate on Coarse Particles,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol.33, pp.4223-4233.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 李春正,1987,“有害廢棄物焚化系統中金屬分佈之模式分析”,工業污染防治,Vol.23,pp.112-122。
2. 王正(1999),《國民年金財務機制之觀察與反思》,社區發展季刊,第八十八期,56-67頁。
3. 王正(2000a),《保險、救助及津貼:老年經濟安全制度財務體系配合之探討》,經社法制論叢,第26期,1-29頁。
4. 王正(2000b),《我國公務員退撫基金採確定給付或確定提撥制?》,公務人員月刊,第46期,4-21頁。
5. 王靜怡(2001),《公共退休金採制度之發展變遷暨其省思》,經社法制論叢,第27期,33-54頁
6. 王麗容(1991),《老年退休制度相關理論與國外制度之探討》,社區發展季刊,第55期,18-26頁。
7. 王麗容(1994),《婦女與社會安全之論─從第二十六屆國際社會福利會議談起》,社會建設,第89期,49-58頁。
8. 古允文(1997),《老人經濟安全與年金需求之觀點與議題》,社會福利,第132期,16-21頁。
9. 呂寶靜(1997),〈台灣地區民眾從事老年準備之初探〉,《社會工作學刊》,第4期,27-53頁。
10. 林大鈞(1999),《落實勞工退休所得保障制度》,中國勞工,16-18頁。
11. 周麗芳(2000),〈臺灣地區長期照護財務抉擇〉,《理論與政策》,第14卷第1期,103-114頁。
12. 施富士(2000),〈我國政府支出成長之政經決策模型──各級政府總支出之實證分析〉《財稅研究》,第32卷第3期,42~60頁。
13. 徐育珠,黃仁德(1996),《企業員工福利與社會安全》,台北市:國立政治大學學報第72期,81~107頁。
14. 韋端(1999),《我國當前政府財政問題與預算對策》,政策月刊,46期,8~13頁。
15. 孫健忠(2000),〈臺灣社會津貼實施經驗的初步分析〉,《社會政策與社會工作學刊》,第4卷第2期,5~41頁。