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研究生:王銘鋒
研究生(外文):Ming-Feng Wang
論文名稱:熔鹽法破壞含鹵素氣狀污染物效率之提升
論文名稱(外文):Efficiency Improvement of Halogenated Gaseous Pollutants Destructed by Molten Salt
指導教授:張國慶張國慶引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Ching Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:熔鹽揮發性有機物CFC-12破壞去除效率
外文關鍵詞:Molten saltVolatile Organic CompoundsDestruction Removal Efficiency
相關次數:
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工業日益發達雖然提升了生活水準,但也因過度的開發而導致人民的生命安全受到了嚴重的威脅。其中又以半導體業、石化業、汽機車業、塑膠業及各種塗料製程都有有機廢氣的問題。目前一般處理有機廢氣還是使用焚化法居多。焚化法固然處理效果不錯,但像在處理含鹵素的碳氫化合物,則因其燃燒後的產物如HCl、HF、Cl2等有害氣體,因為其為酸性氣體,所以後續還是需要藉由洗滌器單元(scrubber)予以去除,但也造成廢水的問題,增加了處理上的難處;如以其他方法處理因為都有其限制,所以尋求更好的技術已是當務之急。
鑑於此本研究之目的是以熔融態硝酸鹽類為處理環境,對於揮發性有機物(Volatile Organic Compound,VOCs)進行熱裂解與氧化。目前是採用化學安定性高且不易破壞的CFC-12(Dichlorodifluoromethane)為實驗材料,以熔融態硝酸鹽類對CFC-12進行處理。同時利用不同的操作參數(熔鹽溫度、熔鹽種類、廢氣濃度、廢氣流量、曝氣氣泡大小)計算其破壞去除效率,並進一步分析殘餘氣體之成分。結果顯示,低流量(0.15LPM),高濃度(90%)之CFC-12氣體在500℃下其破壞去除效率為67.1%,反應後之氣體為二氧化碳及水,並無其他有機或無機酸氣之生成;此外CFC-12中的氯、氟元素及含碳的有機成分則被熔鹽所捕捉,分別形成氯化鈉、氟化鈉及碳酸鈉,無二次污染物之虞。在熔鹽反應器中可一舉完成熱裂解、氧化、除渣以及回收熔鹽等程序,故熔鹽法為一有效處理含鹵素氣狀污染物之方法。

Industries of petrochemicals, automobile, plastics, semiconductor and processes of all kinds of painting have problems of organic pollutions. Several shortcomings were found in pollution treatment, for example, wastewater and sludge problems were produced in the process of removing high concentrated acid and toxic gases such as hydrogen chloride,hydrogen fluoride, and chloride gas in the incineration treatment of hydrocarbon compounds with halogen using a scrubber. The catalytic combustion process required the pretreatment to avoid the catalyst blocking and poisoning. Using active carbon to absorb high concentrated organic pollutants was expensive, and other problems such as temperature,regeneration facility as well as other wastes were also needed to be solved.
The purpose of this research are to develop an economical, simple, and clean technology, which can attain high destruction and removal efficiency of gaseous halogenated organic pollutants and recover some resources. In this research, a variety of volatile halogenated organic compounds will be used as study materials, especially,CFC-12(diehlorodifluromethane) because of its superior chemical stability and low decomposition rate by other thermal treatment methods. Different mixtures of salts will be used as the treatment medium. Experiments will be codueted with varied operating parameters, such as concentration, temperatures, kinds of molten salt, flow rate, residence time, bubble size, and ect. Some preliminary experiments with molten mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite at 500℃ have been performed and showed that this new treatment technique is promising .Results showed DRE could be up to 70﹪when 0.15LPM of gaseous flow capacity and 90﹪of CFC-12 was fed at 500℃. The reacted gaseous products were mainly carbon dioxide and water and the organic and inorganic acid gases were not observed. The elements of chlorine,fluorine, and organic compounds were captured by the molten salt and converted to sodium chloride, sodium fluoride, and sodium carbonate.There products of inorganies salts can easily be further purified and recovered to salable grade, thus meet the green criteria for sustainable development.

目 錄
頁次
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1揮發性有機化合物之簡介 3
2.1.1法規之定義 4
2.1.2揮發性有機化合物之來源 4
2.1.3揮發性有機化合物對人體之危害 5
2.2氟氯碳化物之簡介 6
2.2.1氟氯碳化物之基本性質 7
2.2.2 CFCs對臭氧的破壞 9
2.2.3臭氧層耗盡對人類及環境的影響 11
2.3常用之氣狀污染物控制技術 12
2.3.1吸收法簡介 12
2.3.2吸附法簡介 13
2.3.3冷凝法簡介 14
2.3.4燃燒法簡介 15
2.4熔鹽法之介紹 17
2.4.1 熔鹽之分類及其特性 19
2.4.2熔鹽法處理技術之相關文獻 22
第三章 材料與方法 27
3.1實驗材料 27
3.2實驗設備 30
3.3分析儀器 31
3.3.1氣相層析儀GC(Gas Chromatography) 31
3.3.2氣相層析質譜儀GC/MS(Gas Chromatography/
Mass Spectrometry) 32
3.3.3 X-ray繞射儀(X-ray Diffractometer Spectrometry,
XRD) 33
3.4研究方法 34
第四章 結果與討論 38
4.1各項參數之探討 38
4.1.1熔鹽溫度 41
4.1.2進氣濃度 45
4.1.3進氣流量 46
4.1.4氣泡大小 47
4.1.5與先前之研究結果做比較 48
4.2反應後之氣相探討 49
4.3反應後之固相探討 51
第五章 結論與建議 54
5.1結論 54
5.2建議 55
參考文獻 56
附錄 59
作者簡介 62

參考文獻
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