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研究生:黃俊智
研究生(外文):Jiunn-Jyh Huang
論文名稱:焚化爐衍生空氣污染物特性分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions in Air Collected Near a MSW Incinerator
指導教授:林傑林傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chieh Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:不完全燃燒產物總懸浮微粒多環芳香烴化合物
外文關鍵詞:PICsProducts of Incomplete CombustionTSPTotal Suspend ParticulatePAHsPolycyclic Aromatics Hydrocarbons
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:14
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  • 下載下載:189
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
本研究主要針對本研究之焚化爐運轉後所衍生之典型有害空氣污染物、TSP、PM10濃度、PAHs濃度分佈、SVOCs與VOCs濃度分佈與周界空氣中PCDD/Fs濃度與成份分佈及配合空氣擴散模式之分析比較。其結果如下:(1)空氣品質指標污染物之硫氧化物濃度範圍介於9 ppb~25 ppb之間、氮氧化物濃度範圍介於15 ppb~50 ppb之間、含碳化合物濃度範圍介於0.52 ppm~1.09 ppm之間、臭氧於採樣期間測值介於46∼120 ppb之間,均符合環保法規中之空氣品質標準小時平均值120 ppb。(2)TSP與PM10濃度分佈於採樣期間周界空氣中之總懸浮微粒(TSP)與PM10將以月份及採樣監測點進行統計分析,結果顯示於採樣期間TSP之濃度範圍介於50 μg/m3∼150 μg/m3之間,PM10之濃度範圍介於40 μg/m3∼120 μg/m3之間,懸浮微粒中小於10 μm以下的細微粒平均佔重量濃度75﹪。(3)TSP中之陰離子、陽離子分佈由統計分析調查結果顯示各陰陽離子分別佔PM10濃度為0.2﹪∼15.5﹪之間。(4)PAHs濃度分佈於採樣期間濃度範圍介於ND至60.9 ng/m3,顯示A地焚化爐周界PAHs明顯偏低。(5)半揮發性有機化合物(SVOCs),由表4-17可知在秋冬之際的濃度有略高於春季,其粒徑分佈範圍可能與相同特性的PAHs相似。而VOCs部分主要針對BTEX及苯甲醛等揮發性有機化合物進行分析調查,由表4-19顯示在採樣期間m,p- Xylene在10月與3月份中濃度都是低於偵測極限,而苯甲醛濃度於採樣期間有漸降的趨勢,且經由焚化排放至周界空氣過程苯與甲苯於採樣期間有相同的趨勢,可知苯與甲苯在燃燒過程之生成與破壞有密切的關連性。(6)周界空氣中PCDD/Fs濃度與成份分佈之分析比較,結果顯示焚化廠周圍地區之大氣中平均戴奧辛毒性當量濃度以秋、冬季濃度較高,尤其是冬季(0.16±0.06 pg-TEQ/Nm3)為最高。春季較低(0.08±0.01 pg-TEQ/Nm3)。於採樣期間PCDD/Fs共分六次採樣分析結果顯示焚化爐周界空氣中以高氯數的PCDD/Fs等物種為較多,其中以H7CDD/Fs和OCDD/Fs為主。(7)利用模式來探討以焚化廠附近周界懸浮微粒之濃度分佈,發現焚化爐排放懸浮微粒粒徑大多集中於2.0μm∼5.0μm,其微粒質量濃度大多集中於焚化爐之東南處。採樣期間各月份PAHs及PCDD/Fs的最高濃度分佈大多集中於焚化爐的東南方像或偏南方向之採樣點(#5及#6),此結果與擴散模式所推導之最高著地微粒質量濃度方向相同,懸浮微粒粒徑之吸附特性及質量濃度與PAHs及PCDD/Fs濃度具有關聯性。
Thermal destruction is one of the most effective processes to treat organic waste in view of the volume reduction. Proper control of the incineration process with respect to operating parameters to produce flue gases acceptable to the environment is essential for the success of this approach. Some products of incomplete combustion (PICs), due to their specific toxicological potential, may represent a risk for the human health. Typical hazardous air pollutants for example PAHs, VOC, SVOC and PCDD/F were monitored in air samples collected near a MSW incinerator facility. Concentrations of PM10 and TSP were also investigated in the ambient air. Characteristic PCDD/F homologue patterns were classified using statistical analyses and compared with the model results by ISCST3 calculation. The primary compounds including aromatics, substituted aromatics, polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCDD/F were correlated with each other. The trends of the stereotype PICs formation based on the seasonal effect were reported. There are some comprehensive studies making a direct comparison between the representative environmental samples taken in the vicinity of the incinerator. The air pollutants levels measured near the operating incinerator are summarized as follow:(1) SOx concentrations are 9~25 ppb, NOx concentrations are 15~50ppb, CO concentrations are 0.52~1.09ppm and O3 concentrations are 46~120ppb. (2) TSP concentrations ranged between 50 and 150 ug/m3. PM10 ranged between 40 and 120 ug/m3. (3) PAHs concentrations ranged under 60.9 ng/m3 consistented with other studies. (4) Most of the VOC and SVOC compounds are under detection level in the ambient air samples. (5) The PCDD/F conger and homologue patterns detected in the vicinity provid insight into the mechanism of their fingerprint information of the sources and their fate in the environment. PCDD/F concentrations show the seasonal effects on the formation of total concentration. (6) ISCST3 model predicts the consistent trend with the measured results about TSP and PCDD/F distribution on the surrounding incinerator environment.
目 錄
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
誌 謝 ………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
目 錄 ……………………………………………………………Ⅷ
表 目 錄 ………………………………………………………………XI
圖 目 錄 ………………………………………………………………XⅢ
第一章 緒 論 …………………………………………………..1
1.1 研究緣起 ………………………………………………….1
1.2研究目的 ………………………..…………………………………..2
第二章 文獻回顧 …………………………………………………4
2.1空氣品質指標污染物之簡介 …………………………………4
2.1.1空氣品質指標污染物之形成與來源 ……………………….4
2.1.2空氣品質指標污染物和人體健康之關係 ………………….5
2.2懸浮微粒之簡介 ………………………………………………6
2.2.1懸浮微粒之形成與來源 …………………………………….6
2.2.2懸浮微粒的特性 …………………………………………….7
2.2.3粒狀物質和人體健康之關係 ……………………………….9
2.2.4焚化爐排氣中懸浮微粒特性 ……………………………….11
2.3 PAHs之簡介 …………………………………………………..13
2.3.1 多環芳香烴化合物之來源 ………………………………….13
2.3.2 多環芳香烴化合物形成機制 ……………………………….15
2.3.3 多環芳香烴化合物之特性 ………………………………….16
2.3.3.1 環境空氣暴露 ……………………………………………..17
2.3.3.2 健康危害 …………………………………………………..19
2.4戴奧辛的基本性質與特徵 …………………………………….21
2.4.1 戴奧辛於焚化過程中之生成機制 ………………………….23
2.4.2 戴奧辛於焚化爐周界環境之衝擊 ………………………….29
2.4.3 戴奧辛毒理特性 …………………………………………….30
2.5 ISCST3模式理論應用 …………………………………………37
2.5.1 ISCST3基本理論與假設 …………………………………….39
第三章 研究材料與方法 …………………………………………..43
3.1 背景資料調查 …………………………………………………….43
3.1.1 周界採樣地點範圍認定 ………………………………………43
3.1.2 氣候狀況之調查 ………………………………………………44
3.1.3 空氣品質自動測站數據收集 …………………………………44
3.1.4 現有污染源排放之調查 ………………………………………44
3.2 採樣執行與樣品分析 ………………………………………………...45
3.2.1 氣相採樣器之簡介 ……………………………………………45
3.2.1.1 石英濾紙 ………………………………………………… 46
3.2.1.2 泡棉 ……………………………………………………… 47
3.2.2 VOC、SVOCs及PAHs現場採樣與檢測分析 …………………47
3.2.2.1 萃取 ……………………………………………………….48
3.2.2.2 濃縮 ……………………………………………………….48
3.2.2.3 碳含量分析 ……………………………………………….49
3.2.3 揮發性與半揮發性有機物質標準品之檢量線配製 …………50
3.2.4 分析儀器維護與操作 …………………………………………52
3.2.4.1 氣相層析儀/質譜儀穩定性測定 …………………………52
3.2.5 大氣中戴奧辛採樣及前處理 …………………………………53
3.2.5.1 大氣採樣方法 …………………………………………….54
3.2.5.2 大氣戴奧辛樣品前處理 ………………………………….55
3.2.5.3 泡棉採樣前預洗 ………………………………………….55
3.2.5.4 前處理步驟 ……………………………………………….55
3.2.5.4.1 樣品萃取 ………………………………………………..55
3.2.5.4.2 樣品萃取液之濃縮 ……………………………………..56
3.2.5.4.3 硫酸酸洗及淨化步驟 …………………………………..56
3.3 數據整合與監測結果評估 …………………………………………65
第四章 結果與討論 ……………………………………………………66
4.1 空氣品質指標污染物 ………………………………………………66
4.2 懸浮微粒之粒徑分佈 ………………………………………………67
4.2.1 焚化爐周界空氣中懸浮微粒之粒徑分佈 …………………67
4.2.2 焚化爐周界空氣中PM10/TSP質量濃度比值 ……………… 68
4.2.3 PM10/TSP比值與PAHs濃度之比較 …………………………70
4.2.4 PM10中之陰、陽離子及探成份分佈 …………………………71
4.3 焚化爐周界空氣中之有害揮發性氣體濃度 ………………………74
4.3.1 PAHs濃度分佈 ……………...……………………………75
4.3.2 大氣中總PAHs含量與粒徑分佈之比較 …………………..77
4.3.3 大氣中總PAHs濃度於季節性之比較 ……………………..79
4.3.4 爐體周界空氣中PAHs物種濃度之比較 …………………..80
4.3.5 SVOCs與VOCs濃度分佈 …………………………………..81
4.4 爐體附近周界空氣中戴奧辛/口夫喃濃度與國內外分析比較 …….85
4.4.1 國外戴奧辛排放量及管制標準現況分析 …………………...85
4.4.2 採集周界空氣PCDD/Fs之濃度分佈 ………………………….86
4.4.3 採樣點空氣中戴奧辛成份含量分佈 …………………………88
4.4.4 空氣中戴奧辛成分含量分佈與懸浮微粒粒徑之比較 ………..90
4.4.5 大氣中戴奧辛濃度之季節性比較 …………………………...91
4.5 受體模式驗證 ……………………………………………………..91
4.5.1 擴散模式分析 …………………………………………………91
4.5.2 懸浮微粒之擴散模擬結果 ……………………………………92
4.5.3 懸浮微粒之擴散模擬結果與大氣中PAHs之比較 ………….92
4.5.4 懸浮微粒之擴散模擬結果與大氣中PCDD/Fs
濃度分佈之比較 ……………………………………………..93
4.5.5 大氣中PCDD/Fs模式推估濃度分佈之擴散模擬結果 ………93
第五章 結論與建議 ……………………………………………………94
5.1 結論 ………………………………………………………………..94
5.2 建議 ………………………………………………………………..99
第六章 參考文獻 ……………………………………………………….100
附錄 ………………………………………………………………………...154
作者簡介 ……………………………………………………………157
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