跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.204.56.185) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/17 15:11
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡明成
研究生(外文):Ming-Cherng Tsai
論文名稱:市售傳染性華氏囊病疫苗病毒株之免疫原性及其分子生物學研究
論文名稱(外文):Immunogenicity of Commercial Live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine Seed Viruses and Its Molecular Biological Studies
指導教授:林茂勇
指導教授(外文):Maw-Yeong Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:傳染性華氏囊病酵素連結免疫吸附試驗次單位蛋白傳染性華氏囊病活毒疫苗分子生物學研究
外文關鍵詞:Infectious bursal diseaseELISAsubunit proteinInfectious bursal disease live vaccinemolecular biological studies
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:476
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:57
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
傳染性華氏囊病(infectious bursal disease; IBD)是由Birnaviridae科病毒所引起的幼齡雞隻B淋巴芽細胞壞死之免疫障礙性傳染病。本病在幼齡雞隻之預防控制主要依靠各種IBD活毒疫苗的免疫,但有關各種IBD活毒疫苗的安全性和免疫原性尚未有明確的資料可資參考,於是將23種IBD活毒疫苗分別免疫一組(每組20隻)之3週齡SPF小雞,於免疫後5、10、15和21日每組各抓取5隻採血檢測各組之IBDV ELISA抗體力價,稱取體重和華氏囊重供計算華氏囊體重比(bursa-body weight ratio; BBR)並剖檢華氏囊肉眼病變(BGL)和華氏囊組織學病變(BHL)以評估疫苗株之病原性。少部份(6組)免疫組在免疫後5日可測得100倍以上的ELISA抗體力價,大部份(13組)免疫組在免疫後21日達到最高(71—10748)之抗體力價,但其中分別有3和5組在免疫後10及15日時就可達到最高。各免疫組雞之BBR值計有3種(13.04%)、5種(21.74%)、6種(26.09%)和9種(39.13%)疫苗之病毒分別可分級成中間偏強毒(<1.5)、中間毒(1.51-2.0)、中間偏弱毒(2.01-3.0)和弱毒(>3.01)株級。免疫組之BGL值都很相近,除2組於免疫後10日有中等(1.13和1.30)數值外,其餘在免疫後各不同日期之數值均在0.78以下。各免疫組之BHL值計有3種(13.04%)、2種(8.70%)、5種(21.74%)和13種(56.52%)疫苗之病毒分別可分成中間偏強毒(>2.0)、中間毒(1.51-2.00)、中間偏弱毒(1.01-1.50)和弱毒(1.01-1.50)株級,若以上述BBR和BHL數值評判IBD活毒疫苗之毒性,有16種(69.57%)疫苗之兩種數值完全相同,其他7種(30.43%)疫苗的毒性評等也非常相近,因此BBR和BHL數值應可用為評判IBD活毒疫苗毒性的參考依據,但BGL數值則很難據以參考之。
以七種目前在台灣較為常用IBD活毒疫苗分別免疫七組(每組10隻)3週齡 SPF小雞,於免疫後3週以1995年台灣野外分離之1株(V97/TW95)強毒IBDV(vvIBDV)口服攻擊之,於攻擊直前和攻擊後7日均抓取5隻採血檢測IBD ELISA抗體,撲殺後稱取體重和華氏囊重量以計算BBR值,判讀BGL和BHL數值,結果全部免疫組均有良好(2261—4315)的ELISA抗體反應,僅有一種疫苗於免疫後21日之BBR和BHL達於上述中間偏強毒之標準,有3種疫苗免疫組於攻擊後見有明顯之BBR下降和BHL上升之免疫保護力不足。
收集經19種疫苗株各自免疫後和5株野外毒感染後4天含有大量IBDV增殖之華氏囊組織進行反轉錄聚合酶鏈鎖反應(RT-PCR)以增幅各IBDV VP2高度變異區(hvVP2)之643 bp核苷酸片段,該核苷酸片段選殖定序後,再以DNASTAR軟體進行其親源關係性等之比對。所有病毒株之胺基酸序列比對結果,如以V97/TW95株為比對標準時,野外分離株間和疫苗株間之相似度達97.2%以上者各有3種(60%)及4種(21.0%);如以2002年台灣野外分離株(V263株)為比對標準時,野外分離株間和疫苗株間之相似度達97.2%以上者分別有4種(80%)和5種(26.3%),該5種疫苗亦是目前在臨床上被認為較具保護效力的疫苗,足見hvVP2胺基酸序列的比對頗可做為IBDV活毒保護力的參考應用。
以pET32a Escherichia coli系統將全長1492 bp之V97/TW95株IBDV VP2基因選殖後表現V97/TW95株全長約為70 kDa VP2蛋白,該蛋白經西方轉漬法及免疫墨點法檢測可與V97/TW95株免疫之SPF雞多株抗體血清呈陽性反應,此次單位蛋白之免疫原性尚須待日後進一步評估。
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a B lymphoblast necrotic immunosuppress disease in young chickens causing by a member of Birnaviridae, IBD virus (IBDV). Preventine and control of the disease has been mainly relayed on vaccinating young chicken with a variety of live IBD vaccine. Safety and the immunogenicity of the vaccine has not been clear indicated. An evaluation on the commercial available 23 live IBD vaccines was then designed and done orally in each of the 23 groups, 20 birds per proup, 3-week-old SPF chickens. A nonvaccinated control was also included. Five birds per group was removed for serological enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), body weighing and bursa weighing in calculating bursa/ body weight ratio (BBR), bursa gross lesion (BGL) grading and bursa histological lesion (BHL) grading. Only few (6) vaccinated group had ELISA antibody titer exceed 1:100 at 5 days post vaccination (DPV). Most (13) vaccinated groups had the highest titer (1:71-1:10748) at 21 DPV, but 3 and 7 groups were at 10 and 15 DPV. The BBR value of 3(13.04%), 5(21.74%), 6(26.09%), and 9 (39.13%) vaccinated groups was classified as intermediate plus (IM+; <1.5), intermediate (IM; 1.51-2.00), intermediate minus (IM-; 2.01-3.00) and low (>3.01) virulent level respectively. Only 2 vaccinated groups had moderate (1.13 and 1.30) BGL value at 10 DPV, the other BGL values in different DPV were all under 0.78 and most of the values are quite closed. The BHL value of 3 (13.04%), 2 (8.7%), 5 (21.74%) and 13 (56.52%) vaccinated groups was classified as IM+ (>2.0), IM (1.51-2.00), IM- (1.01-1.50) and low (<1.0) virulent level respectively. By using the above BBR and BHL virulence grading, 16 (69.57%) live IBD vaccines got the same virulent level. Also the BBR and BHL virulent level of the other 7 (30.43%) vaccines was all quite closed. Therefore the BBR and BHL value, but not the BGL value are good pathogenicity indice for live IBD vaccine.
Seven most popular use live IBD vaccines were individually taken to immunize a group of 10 3-week-old chickens then challenge at 21 DPV with a 1995 isolate (V97/TW95) of local very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). A control group was also included. At 21 DPV and 7 day post challenge (DPC), 5 birds per group were removed for serological ELISA, body weighing and bursa weighing in calculating BBR, BGL grading and BHL grading. All the vaccinated groups had reasonable good titer (2261-4315) of ELISA antibody response. At 21 DPV, only 1 group had the BBR and BHL fall in the IM+ virulent level, the others were under IM virulent level. Three vaccinated groups were found not with good protection by showing much higher of BHL value and moderated lower of BBR value after challenge.
Each 24 groups 3-week-old SPF chickens, 10 birds per group, was individually given with one IBDV of the above 19 vaccines and 5 local vvIBDVs for virus propagation in the bursa. The bursa of each group was collected at 4 days post inoculation for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplifying a 643 bp nucleotide belong to the viral protein 2 hypervariable region (hvVP2) of IBDV. All the nucleotides were then cloned and sequenced. A computer DNASTAR software was used to figure out the relationship of the virus in the phylogenic tree, the identity of nucleotide and amino acid of the virus hvVP2. By using the amino acid sequence of V97/TW95 strain as standard, 3 (60%) local isolates and 4 (21.0%) vaccine strains had the amino acid over 97.2% identity as V97/TW95 stain. By using the amino acid sequence of a 2002 local isolate-V263 as standard, 4 (80%) local isolates and 5 (26.3%) vaccine strains had the amino acid over 97.2% identity as V263 stain. The 5 vaccines are the ones now most popular using in the local chicken industry. A comparison of the hvVP2 of IBD vaccine and local isolate strains comes to be a very valuable reference for practical protective evaluation of the live IBD vaccine.
A whole length of IBDV V97/TW95 strain VP2 gene, 1492 bp, was successfully cloned in pET32a Escherichia coli system and a expressied VP2 protein of 70kDa was verified by positive reaction in Western blotting and immuno-dot blotting assay with V97/TW95 strain immunized SPF chicken polyclonal antibody. The immunogenicity of the subunit vaccine need to be further studied.
中文摘要……………………………………………………... Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………... Ⅳ
中文、英文對照縮寫…….…………………………………… Ⅶ
誌謝…………………………………………………………... Ⅸ
目錄…………………………………………………………... ⅩⅠ
圖次索引....…………………………………………………... ⅩⅥ
表次索引……………………………………………………... ⅩⅩⅡ
第1章 前言…………………………………………………… 1
第2章 文獻回顧……………………………………………… 4
2. 1 IBDV的特性……………………………………………. 4
2. 1. 1 IBDV病毒株的病毒形態和發生學…………….... 5
2. 1. 2 IBDV之核苷酸及其蛋白質特性……………….... 6
2. 2 IBDV病毒株的歷史及急性型IBD的流行病學………. 9
2. 2. 1 IBDV之分子流行病學………………………….... 10
2. 2. 2 IBDV的野外保毒者與流行病學之關係………… 12
2. 3 IBDV病毒株之抗原性和致病性變異……………......... 12
2. 3. 1 IBDV病毒株的抗原性…………………………… 13
2. 3. 2 IBDV病毒株的致病性…………………………… 14
2. 3. 3 IBDV病毒株的毒力標誌………………………… 15
2. 3. 4 IBDV病毒株之減毒及適應於細胞之培養馴化… 16
2. 4 IBDV的致病機致和免疫缺陷性……………………..... 18
2. 4. 1 IBDV之致病機轉………………………………… 18
2. 4. 2 IBDV造成之免疫缺陷性………………………… 20
2. 5 IBD的診斷和vvIBDV的特性………………………… 22
2. 5. 1 IBD的感染症狀………………………………....... 22
2. 5. 2 IBDV診斷的分子應用工具……………………… 24
2. 5. 2. 1 反轉錄聚合酶鏈鎖反應(RT-PCR)………… 24
2. 5. 2. 2 反轉錄聚合酶鏈鎖反應-限制性片段長度多型性分析(reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay; RT-PCR-RFLP)應用….. 26
2. 5. 2. 3 單株抗體(monoclonal antibody; mAb)之偵測與分類……………………………………… 26
2. 5. 2. 4 原核表現系統之概述……………………….... 27
2. 6 vvIBDV之預防與控制…………………………………. 29
第3章 研究方法與步驟……………………………………… 32
3. 1 23種IBD活毒疫苗之效力評估……………………….. 32
3. 1. 1 試驗雞隻…………………………………………... 32
3. 1. 2 試驗用疫苗及野外病毒株………………………... 33
3. 1. 3 試驗用疫苗株之TCID50測定……………….......... 33
3. 1. 4 試驗用疫苗株之EID50測定………………………. 33
3. 1. 5 疫苗安全試驗……………………………………... 33
3. 1. 5. 1 血清酵素連結免疫吸附試驗(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA)抗體檢測…… 34
3. 1. 5. 2 華氏囊/體重比值(bursa/body-weight ratio; BBR)之測定…………………………………. 35
3. 1. 5. 3 華氏囊之肉眼及組織學病變分級………….. 35
3. 1. 6 疫苗效力試驗……………………………………... 35
3. 2 以hvVP2基因推定19種IBD活毒疫苗病毒株及5株新近台灣野外IBDV之親緣關係……………………… 36
3. 2. 1 華氏囊之收集…………………………………….. 36
3. 2. 2 病毒純化及核酸萃取……………………………... 36
3. 2. 3 病毒RNA抽取及純化…………………………… 37
3. 2. 4 PCR引子之設計…………………………………... 37
3. 2. 5 RT-PCR之增幅hvVP2 IBDV病毒cDNA……...… 38
3. 2. 6 RT-PCR產物之鑑定及純化………………………. 38
3. 2. 7 載體之製備……………………………………….. 39
3. 2. 8 勝任細胞(competent cell)E. coli(TOP10F’ strain)之製備…………………………………………….. 39
3. 2. 9 RT-PCR產物之分子選殖…………………………. 40
3. 2. 10 重組DNA之抽取及鑑定………………………… 41
3. 2. 11 IBDV hvVP2核酸定序及核酸與胺基酸序列比較分析………………………………………………... 42
3. 3 IBDV之全長VP2基因次單位蛋白製備………………. 42
3. 3. 1 IBDV之全長VP2基因選殖.................................... 42
3. 3. 2 表達用載體(vector)之製備…………………….. 43
3. 3. 3 勝任細胞(competent cells)E. coli BL21(DE3)之製備……………………………………………... 44
3. 3. 4 表達載體與IBDV VP2蛋白之分子重組與選殖…………………………………………………... 44
3. 3. 5 IBDV VP2 70 kDa蛋白質之表達………………… 44
3. 3. 6 免疫墨點反應(immuno-dot blotting assay)……… 45
3. 3. 7 西方免疫轉漬試驗(Western blotting assay)…… 45
第4章 結果…………………………………………………… 47
4. 1 23種IBD活毒疫苗之效力評估……………………… 47
4. 1. 1 23種IBD活毒疫苗之病毒力價測定……………. 47
4. 1. 2. 23種IBD活毒疫苗之安全試驗…………………. 47
4. 1. 2. 1 23種IBD活毒疫苗免疫後之ELISA抗體反應……………………………………………... 47
4. 1. 2. 2 23種IBD活毒疫苗免疫後之BBR值測定…. 49
4. 1. 2. 3 23種IBD活毒疫苗免疫後之華氏囊之肉眼及組織學分級………………………..........…….. 50
4. 1. 3 七種較常用之市售IBD活毒疫苗之效力試驗….. 51
4. 2 以hvVP2基因推定23種IBD活毒疫苗病毒株及5株新近台灣野外IBDV之親緣關係……………………… 52
4. 2. 1 反轉錄聚合酶鏈鎖反應(RT-PCR)……….......... 52
4. 2. 2 IBDV hvVP2核苷酸與胺基酸序列比較分析…… 52
4. 3 IBDV V97/TW95毒株之全長VP2基因次單位蛋白製備………………………………………………………… 54
4. 3. 1. IBDV V97/TW95毒株之全長VP2基因之RT-PCR……………………………………………. 54
4. 3. 2. IBDV V97/TW95毒株之全長VP2基因之重組確認…........................................................................... 54
4. 3. 3. IBDV V97/TW95毒株之VP2蛋白表現…………. 55
4. 3. 4. IBDV V97/TW95毒株之VP2融合蛋白之抗原性分析………………………………………………... 55
4. 3. 4. 1 免疫墨點法試驗(immuno-dot blotting assay) 55
4. 3. 4. 2 西方免疫轉漬法試驗(Western blotting assay) 55
第5章 討論…………………………………………………… 57
5. 1 23種IBD活毒疫苗之效力評估………………………. 57
5. 2 23種IBDV活毒疫苗株及5株新近台灣野外病毒株之親緣關係圖分析………………………………………… 62
5. 3 IBDV之全長VP2基因次單位蛋白製備………………. 66
第6章 參考文獻……………………………………………… 97
附錄……………………………………………………………... 133
附錄一 The pT-Adv vector for cloning ( from Clontech, http:// www.clontech.com. )…………………………..
133
附錄二 The pUC19 vector for cloning ( from Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, http://www.apbiotech.com )…….. 134
附錄三 The pET32a vector for expression ( from Novagen, http://www.novegen.com )…………………………… 135
附錄四 Phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide sequence located at the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene of various serologic standard and variant infectious bursal disease virus isolates ( Liu et al., 2001 )……… 136
附錄五 Comparison of nucleotide sequences ( 1-643 ) of at VP2 hypervariable region of vaccine strains and isolates of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV ). The sequence of isolate V97/TW95 is shown on top, and only differences are indicated.…………………… 137
作者簡介………………………………………………………... 144
約瑟夫 J. 金布朗。2000。傳染性華氏囊病(甘保羅病)過去、現在、未來。中國畜牧雜誌。32(4):58-64。
郁筱玲。1992。傳染性華氏囊病毒VP2基因之核酸定序及其表現,碩士論文,國立中興大學獸醫學研究所。
黃仁斌。1994。雞傳染性華氏囊炎新型疫苗研究的現況與展望。專題報導,13-22。
蔡向榮,呂榮修。1993。1992年台灣雞傳染性華氏囊病大流行之疫情分析。中華獸醫誌,19: 249-258。
蔡信雄。1985。雞傳染性華氏囊炎疫苗接種計劃之探討。碩士論文。國立中興大學獸醫學研究所。
蔡睦宗。1995。台灣高病原性傳染性華氏囊病分子流行病分析。碩士論文,國立台灣大學獸學研究所。
Abdel-Alim G. A., Saif, Y. M. 2001. Immunogenicity and antigenicity of very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease viruses. Avian Diseases 45: 92-101.
Akin, A., Wu, C. C., Lin, T. L. 1999. Amplicfication and cloning of infectious bursal disease virus genomic RNA segments by long and accurate PCR. Journal of Virological methods 82: 55-61.
Alexander, D. J. 1991. Pneumovirus infections ( turkey rhinotracheitis and swollen head syndrome of chickens). In: Diseases of Poultry, 9th edn ( Eds Calnek, B. W., Barnes, H. J. Calnek, B. W., Reid, W. M., Yoder, H. W.), Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp. 669-673
Allan, W. H., Faragher, J. T., Cullen, G. A. 1972. Immunosuppressive by the infectious bursal agent in chickens immunized against Newcastle disease. Veterinary Record, 90: 511-512.
Almedia, J. D., Morris, R. 1973. Antigenically-related viruses associated with infectious bursal disease. Journal of General Virology 20: 369-375.
Anderson, W. I., Ried, W. M., Lukert, P. D., Fletcher, O. J. 1977. Influence of infectious bursal disease on the development of immunity to Eimeria tenella. Avian Diseases 21: 637-641.
Azad, A. A., Barrett, S. A., Fahey, K. J. 1985. The characterization and molecular cloning of the double-stranded dsRNA genome of an Australian strain of infectious bursal disease virus. Virology 143: 35-44.
Azad, A. A., Fahey, K., Barrett, S. A., Erny, K. M., Hudson, P. J. 1986. Expression in Escherichia coli of cDNA fragments encoding the gene for the host-protective antigen of infectious bursal disease virus. Virology 149: 190-198.
Azad, A. A., Jagadish, M. N., Brown, M. A., Hudson, P. J. 1987. Deletion mapping and expression in E. Coli of the large genomic segment of a birnavirus. Virology 161: 145-152.
Banda, A., Villegas, P., El-Attrache, J., Estevez, C. 2001. Molecular characterization of seven field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus obtained from commercial broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 45: 620-630.
Barnes, H. J., Wheeler, J., Reed, D. 1982. Serological evidence of infectious bursal disease virus infection in lowa turkeys. Avian Diseases 26: 560-565.
Bayliss, C. D., Peters, R. W., Cook, J. K. A., Reece, R. L., Howes, K., Binns, M. M., Boursnell, M. E. G. 1991. A recombinant fowlpox virus that expresses the VP2 antigen of infectious bursal disease virus induces protection against mortality caused by the virus. Archives of Virology 120: 193-205.
Bayliss, C. D., Spies, U., Shaw, K., Peters, R. W., Papageorgious, A., Muller, H., Boursnell, M. E. G. 1990. A comparison of the sequences of segment A of four infectious bursal disease virus strains and identification of a variable region in VP2. Journal of General Virology 71: 1303-1312.
Becht H., Muller, H., Muller, H. K. 1988. Comparative studies on structural and antigenic properties of two serotypes of infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of General Virology 69: 631-640.
Belak, S., Ballagi-Pordany, A., Flensburg, J.,Virtanen, A. 1989b. Detection of Psuedorabies virus DNA sequence by the polymerase chain reaction. Archives of Virology 108: 279-286.
Benton, W. J., Cover, M. S., Rosenberger, J. K. 1967a. Studies on the transmission of infectious bursal agent ( IBA) of chicken. Avian Diseases 11: 430-438.
Benton, W. J., Cover, M. S., Rosenberger, J. K., Lake, R. S. 1967b. Physicolchemical properties of the infectious bursal agent ( IBA) of chicken. Avian Diseases 11: 438-445.
Boot, H. J., ter Huurne, A. H. M., Peeters, B. P. H. 2000. Generation of full-length cDNA of the two genomic dsRNA segments of infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of Virological methods 84: 49-58.
Boot, H. J., ter Huurne, A. H. M., Peeters, B. P. H., Gielkens, A. L. J. 1999. Efficient rescue of infectious bursal disease virus from cloned cDNA: evidence for involvement of the 3-terminal sequence in genome replication. Virology 265: 330-341.
Bottcher, B., Kiselve, N. A., Stel’Mashchuk, V. Y., Perevozchikova, N. A., Borisov, A. V., Crowther, R. A. 1997. Three-dimmensional structure of infectious bursal disease virus determined by electron cryomicroscopy, Journal of Virology 71: 325-330.
Box, P. 1989. High maternal antibodies help chickens beat virulent virus. World Poultry 53: 17-19.
Brown, F. 1986. The classification and nomenclature of viruses: summary of results of the meeting so the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in Sendai, September, 1984. Intervirology 25: 141-143.
Brown, M. D., Green, P., Skinner, M. A. 1994. VP2 sequence of recent European “very virulent” isolates of infectious bursal disease virus are closely related to each other but are distinct from those of “classical” straubs, Hiyrbak fi Geberak Vurikigtm 75: 675-680.
Brown, M. D., Skinner, M. A. 1996. Coding sequence of both genome segments of a European “very virulent” infectious bursal disease virus. Virus Research 40: 1-15.
Bumstead, M., Reece, R. L., Cook, J. K. A. 1993. Genetic differences in susceptibility of chicken lines to infection with infectious bursal disease virus. Poultry Science 72: 403-410.
Burkhardt, E., Muller, H. 1987. susceptibility of chicken blood lymphoblasts and monocytes to IBDV. Archives of Virology 94: 297-303.
Cao, Y. C., Yeung, W. S., Law, M., Bi, Y. Z., Leung, F. C., Lim, B. L. 1998. Molecular characterization of seven Chinese isolates of infectious bursal disease virus: classical, very virulent, and variant strains. Avian Diseases 42: 340-351.
Chen, H. Y., Zhou, Q., Zhang, M. F., Giambrone, J. J. 1998. Sequence analysis of the VP2 hypervariable region of nine infectious bursal disease virus isolates from mainland China. Avian Disease 42: 762-769.
Chenill, N. F. 1967. Studies on the pathologenesis of Gumboro disease in bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus of chicken. American Journal of Pathology 51: 527-537
Chettle, N. J., Stuart, J. C., Wyeth, P. J. 1989. Outbreaks of virulent infectious bursal disease in East Anglia. Veterinary Record 125: 271-272.
Cho, B. R. 1970. Expreimental dual infections of chickens with infectious bursal disease and Marek’s disease agents I. Preliminary observations on the effect of infectious bursal agent on Marek’s disease. Avian Diseases 14: 665-675.
Cho, B. R., McDonald, T. L. 1980. Infectious bursal disease virus. Further characterization with evidence for a single-stranded RNA virus. Avian Diseases 24: 423-434.
Cho, Y. 1967. A study of infectious bursal disease and its control by immunizaiton. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Auburn University. Alabama, U.S.A.
Cho, Y., Edgar, S. A. 1969. Characterization of the infectious bursal agent. Poultry Science 48: 2102-2109.
Cho, Y., Edgar, S. A. 1972. Characterization of the infectious bursal disease. Poultry Science 51: 60-69.
Cloud, S. S., Lillehoj, H. S., Rosenberger, J. K. 1992a. Immune dysfunction following infection with chicken anaemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus. I. Kinetic alterations of avian lymphocytes subpopulations. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 34: 337-352.
Cloud, S. S., Rosenberger, J. K., Lillehoj, H. S. 1992b. Immune dysfunction following infection with chicken anaemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus. II. Alteration of in vitro immune response. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 34: 353-366.
Coletti, M., Rossi, E. D., Franciosini, M. P., Passamonti, F., Tacconi, G., Marini C. 2001. Efficacy and safety of an infectious bursal disease virus intermediate vaccine in ovo. 2001. Avian Diseases 45: 1036-1043.
Collins, M. S., Bashiruddin, J. B., Alexander, D. J. 1993. Deduced amino acid sequences at the fusion protein cleavage site of Newcastle disease viruses showing variation in antigenicity and pathogenicity. Archives of Virology 128: 363-370.
Confer, A. W., MacWilliams, P. S. 1982. Correlation of hematological changes and serum and monocyte inhibition with the early suppression of phytohemagglutinin stimulation of lymphocytes in experimental infectious bursal disease. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 46: 169-175.
Confer, A. W., Springer, W .L. T., Shane, S. M., Donovan, J. F. 1981. Sequential mitogen stimulation of perpheral blood lymphocytes from chickens inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42: 2109-2113.
Cosgrove, A. S. 1962. An apparently new disease of chicken-avian nephrosis. Avian Diseases 6: 385-389.
Cummings, T. S., Broussard, C. T., Page, R. K., Thayer, S. G., Lukert, P. D. 1986. Infectious bursal disease virus in turkey. Veterinary Bulletin Abstracts 56: 757-762.
Czifra, G., Janson, D. S. 1999. Infectious bursal disease in Swedern proceedings of the first working group 1 meeting on epidemiology CCST Action 839,
Darteil, R., Bublot, M., Laplace, E., Bouquet, J. F., Audonnet, J. C., Riviere, M. 1995. Herpesvirus of turkey recombinant viruses expressing infectiou bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 immunogen induce protection against an IBDV virulent challenge in chickens. Virology 211: 481-490.
Dasilva Martins, N. R., Mockett, A. P. A., Cook J. K. A. 1992. The immunoglobulin M response in chicken serum to infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Pathology 21: 517-521.
Davis, V. S., Boyle, J. A. 1990. Adapting the polymerase chain reaction to a double-stranded RNA genome. Analytical Biochemistry 189: 30-34.
Deacon, N. J., Lah, M. 1989. The potential of the polymerase chain reaction in veterinary research and diagnosis. Australian Veterinary Journal 66: 442-444.
Di Fabio, J., Rossini, L. I., Eterradossi, N., Toquin D., Gardin, Y. 1999. European-like pathogenic infectious bursal disease viruses in Brazil. Veterinary Record 145: 203-204.
Dijkmans, R., Creemers, J., Billiau, A. 1990. Chicken macrophage activation by interferon: do birds lack the molecular homologue of mammalian interferon-gamma? Veterinary Immunology and Immunopahtology 26: 319-332.
Dobos, P., Hill, B. J. Hallett, R., Kells, D. T. C., Becht, H. 1979. Biophysical and biochemical characterization of five animal viruses with bisegmented double-stranded RNA genomes. Journal of Virology 32: 593-605.
Dybing, J. K., Jackwood, D. J. 1998. Antigenic and immunogenic properties of baculovirus-expressed infectious bursal disease viral proteins. Avian Diseases 42: 80-91.
Elankumaran S., Heckert, R. A., Moura, L. 2002. Pathogenesis and tissue distribution of a variant strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 46: 169-176.
Eterradossi N, Arnauld C, Toquin D, Rivallan G. 1998. Critical amino acid changes in VP2 variable domain are associated with typical and atypical antigenicity in very virulent infectious bursal disease viruses. Archives of Virology 143: 1627-1636.
Eterradossi, N., Arnaud, C., Tekaia, F., Toquin, D., Le Coq, H., Rivallan, G., Guittet, M., Domenech, J., van den Berg, T. P., Shinner, M. A. 1999. Antigenic and genetic relationship between European very virulent infectious bursal disease viruses and an early West-African isolate. Avian Pathology 28: 36-46.
Eterradossi, N., Picault, J. P., Drouin, P., Guittet, M, L’Hospitalier, R., Bennejean, G. 1992. Pathogenicity and preliminary antigenic characterization of six infectious bursal disease virus strains isolated in France from acute outbreaks. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 39: 683-691.
Eterradossi, N., Rivallan, G., Toquin, D., Guittet, M. 1997b. Limited antigenic variation among recent infectious bursal disease virus isolates from France. Archives of Virology 142: 2079-2087.
Eterradossi, N., Toquin, D., Rivallan, G., Guittet, M. 1997a. Modified activity of a VP2-located neutralizing epitope on various vaccine, pathogenic and hypervirulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus. Archives of Virology 142: 255-270.
Fadley, A. M., Winterfield, R. W., Olander, H. J. 1976. Role of the bursa of Fabricius in the pathogenicity of inclusion body hepatitis and infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases, 20: 467-477.
Fahey, K. J., Erny, K., Crooks, J. 1989. A conformational immunogen on VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus that induces virus-neutralizing antibodies that passively protect chickens. Journal of General Virology 70: 1473-1481.
Faragher, J. T. 1972. Infectious bursal disease of chickens. Veterinary Bulletin Abstracts 42: 361-369.
Faragher, J. T., Allan, W. H., Cullen, G. A. 1972. Immunosuppressive effect of the infectious bursal agent in the chicken. Nature: New Biology 237: 118-119.
Fernandez-Arias, A., Martinez, S., Rodriguez. J. F. 1997. The major antigenic protein of infectious bursal disease virus, VP2, is an apoptotic inducer. Journal of Virology 71: 8014-8018.
Fernandez-Arias, A., Risco, C., Martinez, S., Albar, J. P., Rodriguez, J. F. 1998. Expression of ORF A1 of infectious bursal disease virus results in the formation of virus-like particles. Journal of General Virology 79:1047-1054.
Firth, G. A. 1974. Occurrence of infectious bursal syndrome within an Australian poultry flock. Australian Veterinary Journal 50: 128-129.
Fodor, I., Horvath, E., Fodor, N., Nagy, E., Rencendorsh, A., Vakahria. V. N., Dube, S. K. 1999. Induction of protective immunity in chickens immunized with plasmid DNA encoding infectious bursal disease virus antigens. Acta Veterinary Hungarica 47: 481-492.
Fraser, P. D., Linden, H., Sandmann, G. 1993. Purification and reactivation of recombinant Synechococcus phytoene desaturase from an overexpression strain of Escherichia coli. The Biochemical Journal 291: 687-692.
Gardner, H., Kerry, H., Riddle, M., Brouwer, S., Glesson, L. 1997. Poultry virus infectious in Antarctic penguins. Nature 387: 245.
Gaudry, D. 1993. Experiences with very virulent IBDV. Proceedings of the 130th Annul Meeting of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Mineapolis, Minnesota P. 156 ( abstract).
Gelb, J., Eidson, C. S., Fletcher, O. J., Kleven, S. H. 1979. Studies on interferon induction by infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV ). II. Interferon production in White Leghorn chickens infected with an attenuated or pathogenic isolant of IBDV. Avian Disease 23: 634-645.
Giambrone, J. J. 1986. Isolation of variant infectious bursal disease viruses from commercial broiler chickens. Poultry Science 65: 47.
Giambrone, J. J., Dormitorio, T., Brown, T. 2001. Safety and efficacy of in ovo administration of infectious bursal disease viral vaccines. Avian Diseases 45: 144-148.
Giambrone, J. J., Dormitorio, T., Brown, T., Taksehita, K. 1999. Monitoring the immune status of broiler breeders against infectious bursal disease virus using progeny challenge and serologic data. Journal of Applicable Poultry Science 8: 1-5.
Gingeras, T. R., Richman, D. D., Kwoh, D. Y., Guatelli, J. C. 1990. Methodologies for in vitro nucleic acid amplification and their applications. Veterinary Microbiology 24: 235.
Gold, P., Freedman, S. Q. 1965. Demostration FP tumorspecific antigens in human colonic carcinoma by immunological tolerance and absorption technique. J. Exp. Med. 121: 439.
Granzow, H., Birghan, C., Mettenleiter, T. C., Beyer, J., Kollner, B., Mundt, E. 1997. A second form of infectious bursal disease virus-associated tubule contains VP4. Journal of Virology 71: 8879-8885.
Guittet, M., Le Coq, H., Picault, J. P., Eterradossi, N., Bennejean, G. 1992. Safety of infectious bursal disease vaccines: assessment of an acceptability threshold. Developments of Biological Standards 79: 147-152.
Haddad, E. E., Whitfill, C. E., Avakian, A. P., Ricks, C. A., Andrews, P. D., Thoma, J. A., Wakenell, P. S. 1997. Efficacy of a novel infectious bursal disease virus immune complex vaccine in broiler chickens. Avian Diseases 41: 882-889.
Hassan, M. K., al-Natour, M. Q., Ward, I. A., Saif, Y. M. 1996a. Pathogenicity, attenuation, and immunogenicity of infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases 40: 567-571.
Hassan, M. K., Nielsen, C. K., Ward, L. A., Jackwood, D. J., Saif, Y. M. 1996b. Antigenicity, pathogenicity and immunopgenicity of small and large plaque infectious bursal disease virus clones. Avian Diseases, 40, 832-836.
Havarstein, L. S., Kalland, K. H., Christie, K. E., Endresen, C. 1990. Sequence of the large double-stranded RNA segment of the N1 strain of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: a comparison with other Birnaviridae. Journal of General Virology 71: 299-308.
Heine, H. G., Boyle, D. B. 1993. Infectious bursal disease virus structural protein VP2 expressed by a fowlpox virus recombinant confers protection against disease in chickens. Archives of Virology 131: 277-292.
Heine, H. G., Haritou, M., Failly, P., Fahey, K., Aazd, A. 1991. Sequence analysis and expression of the host-protective immunogen VP2 of a variant strain of infectious bursal disease virus which can circumvent vaccination with standard type I stains. Journal of Virology 72: 1835-1843.
Helmboldt, C. F., Caren, E. 1964. Experimentally induce Gumboro disease. Avian Diseases 8: 561-575.
Henry, C. W., Brewer, R. N., Edgar, S. A., Gray, B. W. 1980. Studies on infectious bursal disease in chickens. 2. Scoring microscopic lesion in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and kidney in gnotobiotic and battery reared white leghorns experimentally infected with infectious bursal disease virus. Poultry Science 59: 1006-1017.
Herlyn, M., Steplewski, Z., Herlyn, D., Koprowski, H. 1979. Colorectal carcinoma-specific antigen: detection by means of monoclonal antibodies. Proceedings of National Academy Science of the United States of America 76: 1438.
Hiraga, M., Nunoya, T., Otaki, Y., Tajima, M., Saito, T., Nakamura, T. 1994. Pathogenesis of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus infection in intact and bursectomized chickens. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 56: 1057-1063.
Hirai, K., Calnek, B. W. 1979. In vitro replication of infectious bursal disease virus in established lymphoid cell lines and chicken B lymphocytes. Infection and Immunity 25: 964-970.
Hirai, K., Funakoshi, T., Nakai, T., Shimakura, S. 1981. sequential changes in the number of surface immunoglobulin-bearing B lymphocytes in infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens. Avian Diseases 25: 484-496.
Hirai, K., Shimakura, S. 1974. Structure of infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of Virology 14: 957-964.
Hitchner, S. B. 1970. Infectivity of infectious bursal disease virus for embryonating eggs. Poultry Science 49: 511-516.
Howie, R. I., Thorsen, J. 1981. Identification of a strain of infectious burasal disease virus isolated from mosquitoes. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 45: 315-320.
Hu, Y. C., Bentley, W. E., Edwards, G. H., Vakharia, V. N. 1999. Chimeric infectious bursal disease virus-like particles expressed in insect cells and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 63: 721-729.
Hudson, P. J., McKern, N. M., Power, B. E., Azad, A. A. 1986. Genomic structure of the large RNA segment of infectious bursal disease virus. Nucleic Acid Research 14: 5001-5012.
Inoue, M., Fujita, A., Maeda, K. 1999. Lysis of myelocytes in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. Veterinary Pathology 36: 146-151.
Inoue, M., Fukuda, M., Miyano, K. 1994. Thymic lesions in chicken infected with infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases 38: 839-846.
Inoue, M., Yamamoto, H., Matuo, K., Hihara, H. 1992. Susceptibility of chicken monocytic cell lines to infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of Veterinary and medical Science 54: 575-577.
Jackwood, D. H., Saif, Y. M. 1983. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype I and serotype II in 75 Ohio chicken flocks. Avian Diseases 27: 850-854.
Jackwood, D. H., Saif, Y. M. 1987. Antigenic diversity of infectious bursal disease viruses. Avian Diseases 31: 766-770.
Jackwood, D. H., Saif, Y. M., Hughes, J. H. 1982. Characterization and serological studies of two serotypes of infectious bursal disease virus in turkeys. Avian Diseases 26: 871-882.
Jackwood, D. H., Saif, Y. M., Hughes, J. H. 1987. Replication of infectious bursal disease virus in cotinumous cell lines. Avian Diseases 31: 370-375.
Jackwood, D. J., Byerley, E. H., Sommer, S. E. 2001. Use of a genetic marker for wild-type potentially pathogenic infectious bursal disease viruses. Avian Diseases 45: 701-705.
Jackwood, D. J., Jackwood, R. J. 1994. Infectious bursal disease viruses: Molecular differentiation of antigenic subtype among serotype I viruses. Avian Diseases 38: 531-537.
Jackwood, D. J., Sommer, S. E. 1999. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease viruses from outside the United States. Avian Diseases 43: 310-314.
Jagadish, M. N., Staton, V. H., Hudson, P. H., Azad, A. A. 1988. Birnavirus precursor polyprotein is processed in Escherichia coli by its own virus-encoded polypeptide. Journal of Virology 62: 1084-1087.
Jagadish, M. N., Vaughan, P. R., Irving, R. A., Azad, A. A., Macreadie, I. G. 1990. Expression and characterization of infectious bursal disease virus polyproein in yeast. Gene 95: 179-186.
Jeurissen, S. H., Janse, E. M., Lehrbach, P. R., Haddad, E. E., Avakian, A., Whitfill, C. E. 1998. The working mechanism of an immune complex vaccine that protects chickens against infectious bursal disease. Immunology 95: 494-500.
John, G. R. H. 1982. Monoclonal hybridoma antibodies: techniques and applications. CRC Press Inc. Florida: 1-52
Johnston, P. A., Liu, H., O’Connell, T., Phelps, P., Bland, M., Tyczkowski, J., Kemper, A., Harding, T., Avakian, A., Haddad, E., Whitfill, C., Gildersleeve, R., Ricks, C. A. 1997. Application in in ovo technology. Poultry Science 76: 165-178.
Kant, A., Koch, G., Van Roozelaar, D. J., Balk, F. and Ter Huurne, A. 1997. Differentiation of virulent and non-virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus within 24 hours by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathology 26: 837-850.
Karaca, K., Kim, I. J., Reddy, S. K., Sharma, J. M. 1996. Nitric oxide inducing factor as a measure of antigen and mitogen-specific T cell responses in chickens. Journal of Immunologyical Methods 10: 97-103.
Kaufer, I., Weiss, E. 1976. Electron-microscope studeis on the pathogenesis of infectious bursal disease after intrabursal application of causal virus. Avian Diseases 20: 483-495.
Kelemen, M., Forgach, K., Ivan, J., Palya, V., Suveges, T., Toth, B., Meszaros, J. 2000. Pathological and immunological study of an in ovo complex vaccine against infectious bursal disease. Acta Veterinary Hungarica 48: 443-454.
Kibenge, F. S. B., Dhama, V. 1997. Evidence that virion-associated VP1 of avibirnaviruses contains viral RNA sequences, Archives of Virology 142: 1227-1236.
Kibenge, F. S. B., Dhillon, A. S., Russel, R. G. 1988. biochemistry and immunology of infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of General Virology 69: 1757-1775.
Kibenge, F. S. B., Jackwood, J., Mercado, C. C. 1990. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genome segment A of infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of General Virology 71: 569-577.
Kibenge, F. S. B., Qian, B., Cleghorn, J. R., Martin, C. K. 1997. Infectious brusal disease virus polyprotein processing does not involve cellular proteases. Archives of Virology 142; 2401-2419.
Kibenge, F. S. B., Qian, B., Nagy, E., Cleghorn, J. R., Wasowska, D. 1999. Formation of virus-like particles when the polyprotein gene ( segment A ) of infectious bursal disease virus is expressed in insect cells. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 63: 49-55.
Kim, I. J., Karaca, K., Pertile, T. L., Erickson, S. A., Sharma, J. M. 1998. Enhanced expression of cytokine genes in spleen macrophages during acute infection with infectious bursal disease virus in chickens. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 61: 331-341.
Knoblich, H. V., Sommer, S. E., Jackwood, D. J. 2000. Antibody titers to infectious bursal disease virus in broiler chicks after vaccination at one day of age with infectious bursal disease virus and Marek''s disease virus. Avian Diseases 44: 874-884.
Kosters, J., Becht, H., Rudolph, R. 1972. Properties of the infectious bursal agent of chicken ( IBA). Medicine of Microiology and Immunology 157: 291-298.
Kouwenhoven, B., van den Bos, J. 1994. Control of very virulent infectious bursal disease ( Gumboro Disease) in the Netherlands with more virulent vaccines. Proceedings of the International symposium on infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia ( pp. 262-271). Rauischholzhausen, Germay.
Lam, K. M. 1998. Alteration of chicken heterophil and macrophage function by the infectious bursal disease virus. Microbiological Pahtogenesis 25: 147-155.
Lambrecht, B., Gonze, M., Meulemans, G., van den Berg, T. P. 2000. Production of antibodies against chicken interferon-γ: demonstration of neutralizing activity and development of a quantitative ELISA. Veterinary Immunology and immunopath -ology 74: 137-144.
Lana, D. P., Beisel, C. E., Silva, R. F. 1992. Genetic mechamisms of antigenitc variation in infectious bursal disease virus: analysis of a naturally occurring variant virus. Virus Genes 3: 247-259.
Lasher, H. N., Shane, S. M. 1994. Infectious bursal disease. World’s Poultry Science Journal 51: 133-166.
Lee, L. H., Lu, Y. S., Li, N. J. 1988. Characterization of infectiosu bursal disease virus isolated in Taiwan. Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 14: 89-100.
Lee, L. H., Lukert, P. D. 1986. Adaptation and antigenic variation of infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 12: 297-304.
Lee, L. H., Yu, S. L., Shieh, H. K. 1992. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus infection using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virology Methods 40: 243-254.
Levy, M. G., Ley, D. H., Barnes, H. J., Gerig, T. M., Corbett, W. T. 1988. Experimental cryptosporidiosis and infectious bursal disease virus infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens. Avian Diseases 32: 803-811.
Lim, B. L., Cao, Y., Yu, T., Mo, C. W. 1999. Adaptation of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus to chicken embryonic fibroblast by site-directed mutagenesis of residues 279 and 284 of viral coat protein VP2. Journal of Virology 73: 2854-2862.
Lin, Z., Kato, A, Otaki, Y., Nakamura, T., Sasmaz, E., Ueda, S. 1993. Sequence comparison of a highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus prevalent in Japan. Avian Diseases 37: 315-323.
Liu, H. J., Giambrone, J. J., Dormitorio, T. 1994. Detection of genetic variations in serotype I isolates of infectious bursal disease virus using polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis. Journal of Virology Methods 48: 281-291.
Liu, H. J., Huang, P. H., Wu, Y. H., Lin, M. Y., Liao, M. H. 2001. Molecular characterization of very virulent infectious bursal disease viruses in Taiwan. Research in Veterinary Science 70: 139-147.
Liu, J., Zhou, J., Kwang, J. 2002. Antigenic and molecular characterization of recent infectious bursal disease virus isolates in China. Virus Genes 24: 135-147.
Lombardo, E., Maraver, A., Casten, J. R., Rivera, J., Ferandez-Arias, A., Serrano, A., Carrascosa, J. L. N., Rodriguez, J. F. 1999. VP1, the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of infectious bursal disease virus, forms complexes with the capsid protein VP3, leading to efficient encapsidation into virus-like particles. Journal of Virology 73: 6973-6983.
Lu, Y. L., Shieh, H. K. 1983. Infectious bursal disease in Taiwan. Journal of the Chinese Society of Veterinary Science 9: 61-66.
Lucio, B., Hitchner, S. B. 1980. Immunosuppression and active response induced by infectious bursal disease virus in chickens with passive antibodies. Avian Diseases 24: 189-196.
Lukert, P. D., Davis, R. B. 1974. Infectious bursal disease virus: Growth and characterization in cell cultures. Avian Diseases 18: 243-250.
Lukert, P. D., Saif, Y. M. 1991. Infectious bursal disease. In: Diseases of Poultry, 9th edn ( Eds Calnek, B. W., Barnes, H. J. Calnek, B. W., Reid, W. M., and Yoder, H. W.), Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, pp. 648-663
Lutticken, D. 1997. Viral disease of the immune system and strategies to control infectious bursal disease by vaccination. Acta Veterinary Hungarica 45: 239-249.
Macdonald, R. D., Dobos, P. 1981. Identification of the proteins encoded by each genome segment of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Virology 114:414-22.
Macreadie, I. G., Vaaghan, P. R., Chapan, A. J. McKern, N. M. Jagadish, M. N., Heine, H. G. Ward, C. W., Fahey, K. J., Azad, A. A. 1990. Passive protection against infectious bursal disease virus by viral VP2 expressed in yeast. Vaccine 8: 549-552.
Martinez-Tprreciadrada, J. L., Lazaro, B., Rodriguez, J. F., Casal, J. I. 1999. Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of baculovirus-expessed infectious bursal disease virus proteins VPX and VP3. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 7: 645-651.
McFerran, J. B. 1993. Infectious bursal disease. In J. B. McFerran and M. S. McNulty (Eds ), Virus Infections of birds ( pp. 213-228 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
McFerran, J. B., McNulty, M. S., Mckillop, E. R., Connor, T. J., McCracken, R. M., Collin, D.S., Allan, G. M. 1980. Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease virus from fowl turkeys and ducks demostration of second serotype. Avian Pathology 9: 395-404.
McNeilly, F., walker, I., Allan, G. M., Adari, B. 1999. Bursal lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate: effect of IBDV strains on the proliferation response. Avian Pathology 28: 301-303.
McNulty, M. S., Saif, Y. M. 1988. Antigenic relationship of non-serotype I turkey infectious bursal disease viruses. Avian Diseases 32: 374-375.
Meir R, Jackwood D. J., Weisman Y. 2001. Molecular typing of infectious bursal disease virus of Israeli field and vaccine strains by the reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction /restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Avian Diseases 45: 223-228.
Meulemans, G., Halen, P. 1981. Effecacy of some disinfectants agianst infectious bursal disease virus and avian reovirus. Veterinary Record 111: 412-413.
Michelle, M. C., Giambrone, J. J., Dormitorio T. V. 2001. Detection of infectious bursal disease vaccine virus in lymphoid tissues after in ovo vaccination of specific-pathogen-free embryos. Avian Diseases 45: 897-905.
Morgan, M. M., MaCreadie, I. G., Harley, V. R., Hudson, P. J., Azad, A. A. 1988. Sequence of the small double-stranded RNA of infectious bursal disease virus and its deduced 90-kDa product. Virology 163: 240-242.
Muller, H. 1986. Replication of infectious bursal disease virus in lymphoid cell. Archives of Virology 87: 191-203.
Muller, H., Becht, H. 1982. Biosynthesis of virus-specific proteins in cells infected with infectious bursal disease virus and signification as structural elements for infectious virus and incomplete particles. Journal of Virology 44: 384-392.
Muller, H., Nischke, R. 1987. The two segments of the infectious brusal disese virus genome are circularized by a 90,000-Da protein. Virology 159: 174-177.
Muller, H., Schnitzler, D., Bernstein, F., Becht, H., Cornelissen, D., Lutticken, D. H. 1992. Infectious bursal disease of poultry: antigenic structure of the virus and control. Veterinary Microbiology 33: 175-183.
Muller, R., Kaufer, I., Reinacher, M., Weiss, E. 1979. Immunofluor -escent studies of early virus propagation after oral infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV ). Zentralbad Veterinary Medicine 26: 345-352.
Mullis, K. B., Faloona, F. A. 1987. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Methods in Enzymology 155: 335-350.
Mundt, E. 1999. Tissue culture infectivity of different strains of infectious bursal disease virus ins determined by distinct amino acids in VP2. Journal of General Virology 80: 2067-2076.
Mundt, E., Beyer, J., Muller, H. 1995. Identification of a novel viral protein in infectious bursal disease virus-infected cells. Journal of General Virology 76: 437-443.
Mundt, E., Kollner, B., Kretzschmar, D. 1997. VP5 of infectious bursal disease virus is not essential for viral replication in cell culture. Journal of Virology 71: 5647-5651.
Mundt, E., Muller, H. 1995. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5’-and 3’- noncoding regions of both genome segments of different strains of infectious bursal disease virus. Virology, 209: 10-18
Mundt, E., Vakharia, V. N. 1996. Synthetic transcripts of the double-stranded birnavirus genome are infectious. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93: 11131-11136.
Myers, T. W., Gelfand, D. H. 1991. Reverse transcription and DNA amplification by a Thermus thermophilus DNA polymerase. Biochemistry 30: 7661-7666.
Nagarajan, M. M., Kibenge, F. S. B. 1997. Infectious bursal disease virus: a review of molecular basis for variations in antigenicity and virulence. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 61: 81-88.
Nakamura, T., Otaki, Y., Nunoya, T. 1992. Immunosuppressive effect of a highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolated in Japan. Avian Diseases, 36: 891-896
Nakamura, T., Yuasa, N., Abe, H., Narita, M. 1990. Effect of infectious bursal disease virus on infections produced by Escherichia coli high and low virulence in chickens. Avian Pathology 19: 713-721.
Nevalainen, M., Ek-Kommonen, C., Sithvonen, L. 1999. Infectious bursal disease. Epidemiostrveillance in Finland. Proceedings of the First Working Group I meeting on Epidemiology, COST Action 839, 06-08/06/99, Polufragan, France.
Nick, H., Cursiefen, D., Becht, H. 1976. Structural and growth characteristics of infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of Virology 18: 227-234.
Nielsen, O. L., Sorensen, P., Hedemand, J. E., Laursen, S. B., Jorgensen, P. H. 1998. Inflammatory response of different chicken lines and B haplotypes to infection with infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Pathology 27: 181-189.
Nieper, H., Teifke, J. P., Jungmann, A., Lorh, C. V., Muller, H. 1999. Infected and apoptotic cells in the IBDV-infected bursa of Fabricus, studied by double-labelling techniques. Avian Pathology 28: 279-285.
Nunoya, T., Otaki, Y, Tajima, M. Hiraga, M., Saito, T. 1992. Occurrence of acute infectious bursal disease with high mortality in Japan and pathogenicity of field isolates in SPF chickens. Avian Diseases 36: 597-609.
Oberdorfer, A., Wermer, O. 1998. Newcastle disease virus: detection and characterization by PCR of recent German isolates differing in pathogenicity. Avian Pathology 27: 237-243.
Ogawa, M., Wakuda, T., Yamaguchi, T., Murata, K., Setiyono, A., Fukushi, H., Hirai, K. 1998b. Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease virus in free-living wild birds in Japan. Journal of Veterinary and Medical Science 60: 1277-1279.
Ojeda, F., Shardova, I., Guarda, M. I., Ulloa, J., Folch, H. 1997. Proliferation and apoptosis in infection with infectious bursal disease virus: a flow cytometric study. Avian Diseases 41: 312-316.
Okoye, J. O. A., Okeke, C. N., Ezeobele, F. K. O. 1991. Effect of infectious bursal disease virus infection on the severity of Aspergillus flavs aspergillosis of chickens. Avian Pathology 20: 167-171.
Okoye, J. O. A., Uzoukwu, M. 1981. An outbreak of infectious bursal disease among chickens between 16 and 20 weeks old. Avian Diseases 25: 1034-1038.
Onunkwo, O., Momoh, M. A. 1981. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious bursal disease ( IBD) in northern Nigeria ( 1975-1979). Bull Animal Health Prod Afr. 29: 243-249.
Oppling, V., Muller, H., Becht, H. 1991. Heterogeneity of the antigenic site responsible for the induction of neutralizing antibodies in infectious bursal virus. Archives of Virology 119: 211-223.
Oste, C. 1988. Polymerase chain reaction. Bio/Techniques 6: 163-167.
Panigrahy, B., Misra, L. K., Naqu, S. A., Hall, C. F. 1977. Prolongation of skin allograft survival in chickens with infectious bursal disease. Poultry Science 56: 1745.
Pitcovski, J., Di-Castro, D., Shaaltiel, Y., Azriel, A., Gutter, B., Yarkoni, E., Michael, A., Krispel, S., Levi, B. Z. 1996. Insect cell-derived VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus confers protection against the disease in chickens. Avian Diseases 40: 753-761.
Pitcovski, J., Goldberg, D., Levi, B. Z., Di-Castro, D., Azriel, A., Krispel, S., Maray, T., Sahaaltiel, Y. 1998. Coding region of segment A seaquence of a very virulent isolate of IBDV- comparison with isolates from different countries and virulence. Avian Diseases 42: 497-506.
Pitcovski, J., Levi, B. Z., Maray, T., Di-Castro, D., Safadi, A., Krispel, S., Azriel, A., Gutter, B., Michael, A. 1999. Failure of viral protein 3 of infectious bursal disease virus produced in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems to protect chickens against the disease. Avian Diseases 43: 8-15.
Porter-jordan, K., Rosenberg, E. I., Keiser, J. F., Gross, J. D., Ross, A. M., Nasim, S., Garret, C. T. 1990. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of cytomegalovirus overcomes false positives caused by contamination with fragmented DNA. Journal of Medical Virology 30: 85-91.
Proffitt, J. M., Bastin, D. A., Lehrbach, P. R. 1999. Sequence analysis of Australian infectious bursal disease viruses. Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 186-188.
Qian, B., Kibenge, F. S. B. 1994. Observation on polymerase chain reaction amplification of infectious bursal disease virus dsRNA. Jorunal of Virology Methods 47: 237-242.
Rautenschlein, S., Yeh, H. Y., Njenga, M. K., Sharma, J M. 2002. Role of intrabursal T cells in infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV)infection: T cells promote viral clearance but delay follicular recovery. Archives of Virology 147: 285-304.
Rodenberg, J., Sharma, J., Belzer, S. W., Nordgren, R. M., Nagi, S. 1994. Flow cytometric analysis of B cell and T cell subpopula- tions in Virus. Avian Diseases 38: 16-21.
Rosales, A. G., Villegas, P., Lukert, P. D., Fletcher, O. J., Mohamed, M. A., Brown, J. 1989. Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of two field strains of infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases 33: 35-41.
Rosenberger, J. K., Cloud, S. S. 1989. The effects of age, route of exposure and co-infection with infectious bursal disease viron on the pathogenicity and transmissability of chicken anemia agent ( CAA). Avian Diseases 33: 735-759.
Rosenberger, J. K., Gelb, J. 1978. Response to several avian respiratory virus as affected by infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases 22: 95-105.
Saif Y. M. 1991. Immunosuppression induced by infectious bursal disease virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 30: 45-50.
Saiki, R. K., Gelfand, D. H., Stoffel, S., Scharf, S. J., Higuchi, R., Horn, T. T., Mullis, K. B., Erlich, H. A. 1988b. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermonstable DNA polymerase. Science 239: 487-491.
Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F., Maniatis, T. 1989. “ Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual”. 2nd Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
Sanchez, A. B., Rodriguez, J. F. 1999. Proteolytic processing in infectious bursal disease virus: identification of the polyprotein cleavage sites by site-directed mutagensis. Virology 262: 190-199.
Sapats, S., Ignjatovic, J. 2000. Antigenic and sequence heterogeneity of infectious bursal disease virus strains isolated in Australia. Archives of Virology 145: 773-785.
Savic, V., Bidin, Z., Cajavec, S., Stancic, M., Gjurcevic, D., Saviv, G. 1997. Epidemic of infectious bursal disease in Croatia during the period 1995-1996: field and experimental observations. Veterinarski Archives 67: 243-251.
Scherbakova, L. O., Lomakin, A. I., Borisov, A. V., Drygin, V. V., Gusev, A. A. 1998. Comparative analysis of the VP2 variable region of the gene from infectious bursal disease virus isolates. Molecular and General Microbiology and Virology 1: 35-40.
Schnitzler, D., Bernstein, F., Muller H. 1993. The genetic basis for the antigenicity of the VP2 protein of the infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of General Virology 74: 1563-1571.
Sellner, L. N., Coelen, R. J., Mackenzie, J. S. 1992. Reverse transcriptase inhibits Taq polymerase activity. Nuclear Acid Science 74: 5463-5476.
Sharma, J. M., Dohrns, J. E., Metz, A. L. 1989. Comparative pathogenesis of serotype 1 and variant serotype 1 isolates of infectious bursal disease and their effect on humoral and cellular immune competence of SPF chickens. Avian Diseases 33: 112-124.
Sharma, J. M., Dohrns, J. E., Walser, M., Snyder, D. B. 1993. Presence of lesions without virus replication in the thymus of chickens exposed to infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases 37: 741-748.
Sharma, J. M., Fredricksen, T. L. 1987. Mechanisms of T cell immunosuppression by infectious bursal disease virus of chicken. Proceedings of Avian Immunology 238: 283-294.
Sharma, J. M., Lee, L. 1983. Effects of infectious bursal disease virus on natural killer cell activity and mitogenic response of chicken lymphoid cells. Infection and Immunity 42: 747-754.
Sheppard, M., Werner, W, Tsatas, E., McCoy, R., Prowse, S., Johnson, M. 1998. Fowl adenovirus recombinant expressing VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus induces protective immunity against bursal disease. Archives of Virology 143: 915-930.
Sivanandan, V., Maheswaran, S. K. 1981. Immune profile of infectious bursal disease. III. Effect of infectious bursal disease virus on the lymphocytes responses to phytomitogens and on mixed lymphocyte reaction of chickens. Avian Diseases 25: 112-120.
Skeeles, J. K., Slavik, M., Beasley, J. N., Brown, A. H., Meinecke, C. F., Maruca, S., Welch, S. 1980. An age-related coagulation disorder associated with experimental infection with infectious bursal disease virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41: 1458-1461.
Smiley, J. R., Jackwood, D. J. 2001. Genetic stability of the VP2 hypervariable region of four infectious bursal disease virus isolates after serial passage in specific-pathogen-free chicken embryos. Avian Diseases 45: 1-8.
Snedeker, C. E., Wills, F. K., Moulthrop, I. M. 1967. Some studies on the infectious bursal agent. Avian Diseases 11: 519-528.
Spies, U., Muller, H., Becht, H. 1987. Properties of RNA polymerase activity associated with infectious bursal disease virus and characterization of its reaction products. Virus Research 8: 127-140.
Spies, U., Muller, H., Becht. H. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of infectious bursal disease genome A delineated major open reading frames. Nucleic Acid Research 17: 7982.
Synder, D. B. 1990. Changes in the field status of infectious bursal disease virus-guest editorial. Avian Pathology 19: 419-423.
Synder, D. B., Lana, D. P., Cho, B. R., Marquardt, W. W. 1988a. Group and strain-specific neutralization sites of infectious bursal disease viruses defined with monoclonal antibodies. Avian Diseases 32: 527-534.
Synder, D. B., Lana, D. P., Savage, P. K., Yancey, F. S., Mengel, S. A., Marquard, W. W. 1988b. Differentition of infectious bursal disease viruses directly from infected tissues with neutralizing monolconal antibodies. Evidence of a major antigenic shift in recent field isolates. Avian Diseases 32: 535-539.
Synder, D. B., Vakharia, V. N., Savage, P. K. 1992. Naturally occurring-neutralizing monoclonal antibody escape variants define the epidemiology of infectious bursal disease viruses in the United States. Archives of Virology 127: 89-101.
Tacken, M. G., Rottier, P. J., Gielkens, A. L., Petters, B. P. 2000. Interactions in vivo between the proteins of infectious bursal disease virus: capsid protein VP3 interacts with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, VP1. Journal of General Virology 81: 209-218.
Tanimura, N., Sharma, J. M. 1997. Appearance of T cells in the bursa of Fabricius and cecal tonsil during the acute phase of infectious bursal disease virus infection in chickens. Avian Diseases 41: 638-645.
Tanimura, N., Sharma, J. M. 1998. In-situ apoptosis in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology 118: 15-27.
Tanimura, N., Tsukamoto, K, Nakamura, K., Narita, M., Maeda, M. 1995. Association between pathogenicity of infectious bursal disease virus and viral antigen distribution detected by immunochemistry. Avian Diseases 39: 9-20.
To, H., Yamaguchi, T., Nguyen, O. T., Nguyen, S. V., Agus, S., Kim, H. J., Fukushi, H., Hirai, K. 1999. Sequence comparison of the VP2 variable region of infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Vietnam. Journal of Veterinary and Medical Science 61: 429-432.
Toroghi, R., Kataria, J. M., Verma, K. C., Kataria, R. S., Tiwari, A. K. 2001. Amino acid changes in the variable region of VP2 in three infectious bursal disease viruses with different virulence, originating from a common ancestor. Avian Pathology 30: 667-673.
Tsai, H. J., Saif, Y. M. 1992. Effect of cell-culture passage on the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of two variant strains of infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases 36: 415-422.
Tsukamoto, K., Kojima, C., Komori, Y., Tanimura, N., Mase, M., Ymaaguchi, S. 1999. Protection of chickens against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Marek’s disease virus ( MDV) with a recombinant MDV expressing IBDV VP2. Virology 257(10): 352-362.
Tsukamoto, K., Tanimura, N., Hihara, H., Shirai, J., Imai, K., Nakamura, K., Maeda, M. 1992. Isolation of virulent infectious bursal disease virus from field outbreaks with high mortality in Japan. Journal of Veterinary and Medical Science 54: 153-155.
Tsukamoto, K., Tanimura, N., Mase, M., Imai, K. 1995. Comparison of virus replication efficiency in lymphoid tissues among three infectious bursal disease virus strains. Avian Diseases 39: 844-852.
Vakharia, V. N., Ahamed, B., He, J. 1992. Use of polymerase chain reaction for effcient cloning of dsRNA segment of infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Diseases, 36: 736-742.
Vakharia, V. N., He, J., Ahamed, B., Snyder D.B. 1994b. Molecular basis of antigenic variation in IBDV. Virus Research 31: 265-273.
Vakharia, V. N., Synder, D. B., Lutticken, D., Mengel-Whereat, S. A., Savage, P. K., Edwards, G. H., Goodwin, M. A. 1994a. Active and passive protection against variant and classic infectious bursal disease virus strains induced by baculovirus-expressed structural proteins. Vaccines. Vaccine 123: 452-456.
van den Berg, T. P., Godfroid, J., Morales, D., Meulemans, G. 1994b. The use of HD11 macrophage cell line in the study of IBDV. Proceedings of the international symposium on infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia (pp. 133-142). Rauischholzhausen, Germany.
van den Berg, T. P., Gonze, M., Meulemans, G. 1991. Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: isolation and characterisation of a highly virulent strain. Avian Pathology 20: 133-143.
van den Berg, T. P., Gonze, M., Morales, D., Meulemans, G. 1994a. Relevance of antigenic variation for protection in infectious bursal disease. Proceedings of the infectious bursal disease. Proceedings of the international symposium on infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia (pp. 22-36).
van den Berg, T. P., Gonze, M., Morales, D., Meulemans, G. 1996. Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: immunological and molecular basis of antigenicity of a highly virulent strain. Avian Pathology 25: 751-768.
van den Berg, T. P., Lambrecht, B., Morales, D., Gonze, M., Meulemans, G. 1999. Partial protection of chickens against IBDV by DNA vaccination. Proceedings of the Keystone Symposium: DNA Vaccine: Immune responses, mechanisms and manipulating antigen processing. Snowbird, UT, 12-17 April.
van den Berg, T. P., Meulemans, G. 1991. Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: protection afforded by maternally derived antibodies and interference with live vaccination. Avian Pathology 20: 409-421.
van der Marel, P., Snyder, D., Lutticken, D. 1990. Antigenic characterization of IBDV field isolates by their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Deutsch Tierarzil Wochenschrift 97: 81-83.
van Loon, A. A., de Haas, N., Zeyda, I., Mundt, E. 2002. Alteration of amino acids in VP2 of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus results in tissue culture adaptation and attenuation in chickens. Journal of General Virology 83: 121-129.
Vasconcelos, A. C., Lam, K.M. 1994. Apoptosis induced by infectious bursal disease virus. Journal of General Virology 75: 1803-1806.
Vervelde, L., Davison, T. F. 1997. Comparison of the in situ changes in lymphoid cells during infection with infectious bursal disease virus in chickens of different ages. Avian Pathology 26: 803-821.
Wilcox, G. E., Flower, R. L., Baxendale, W., Smith, V. W. 1983. Infectious bursal disease in Western Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 60: 86-87.
Winterfield, R. W. 1969. Immunity response to the infectious bursal agent. Avian Diseases 13: 548-557.
Winterfield, R. W., Fadly, A. M., Bickford, R. 1972. Infectivity and distribution of infectious bursal disease virus in the chicken: Persistence of the virus and lesions. Avian Diseases 16: 622-632.
Winterfield, R. W., Hitchner, S. B. 1962. Etiology of an infectious nephritis-nephrosis syndrome of chicken. American Journal of Veterinary Research 23: 1273-1279.
Wu, C. C. Lin, T. L., Zhang, H. G., Davis, V. S., Boyle, J. A. 1992. Molecular detection of infectious bursal disease virus by polymerase chain reacton. Avian Diseases 36: 221-226.
Wu, C. C., Lin, T. L. 1992. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in digested formalin-fixed parpffin-embdded tissue sections by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4: 452-455.
Yamaguchi, T., Kondo, T., Inoshima, Y., Ogawa, M., Miyoshi, M., Yanai, T., Masegi, T., Fukushi, H., Hirai, K. 1996a. In vitro attenuation of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus: some characteristics of attenuated strains. Avian Diseases 40: 501-509.
Yamaguchi, T., Wgawa, M., Miyoshi, M., Inoshima, Y., Fukushi, H., Hirai, K. 1997. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Archives of Virology 142: 1441-1458.
Yamauchi, T., Wgawa, M., Inoshima, Y., Miyoshi, M., Fukushi, H., Hirai, K. 1996b. Identification of sequence changes responsible for the attenuation of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Virology 223: 219-223.
Yao, K., Goodwin, M. A., Vahkaria, V. N. 1998. Generation of mutant infectious bursal disease virus that does not cause bursal lesions. Journal of Virology 72: 2647-2654.
Yao, K., Vahkaria, V. N. 2001. Induction of apoptosis in vitro by the 17-kDa nonstructural protein of infectious bursal disease virus: possible role in viral pathogenesis. Virology 285: 50-58.
Yehuda, H., Goldway, M., Gutter, B., Michael, A., Godfried, Y., Shaaltiel, Y., Levi, B. Z., Pitcovski, J. 2000. Transfer of antibodies elicited by baculovirus-derived VP2 of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus strains to progeny of commercial breeder chickens. Avian Pathology 29: 13-19.
Yehuda, H., Pitcovski, J., Michael, A., Gutter, B., Goldway, M. 1999. Viral protein 1 sequence analysis of three infectious bursal disease virus strains: a very virulent virus, its attenuated form, and an attenuated vaccine. Avian Diseases 43: 55-64.
Yelotn, D. E., Scharff, M. D. 1981. Monoclonal antibodies: a powerful new tool in bioloby and medicine. Annual Review of Biochemistry 50: 657.
Zhou, J., Liu, F. Z., Chew, L. Y., Wang, S. J. 1982. Isolation of the infectious bursal disease agent of chickens in the Beijing area. China Journal of Veterinary Medicine 8: 25-26.
Zierenberg, K., Nieper H., van den Berg, T. P., Ezeokoli, C. D., Voss, M., Muller, H. 2000. The VP2 variable region of two German and 11 African isolates of infectious bursal disease viruses ( IBDVs ): comparison of the amino acid sequences with very virulent, “classical” virulent and attenuated tissue culture-adapted strains. Archives of Virology 145: 113-125.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top