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研究生:林穎明
研究生(外文):Ying-Ming Lin
論文名稱:溫度對銀葉粉蝨BemisiaargentifoliiBellows&Perring(Homopetra:Aleyrodidae)之寄生蜂EncarsiapergandiellaHoward(Hymenoptera:Aphelinidae)發育及寄生效果之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Temperature on the Development and Parasitism of a parasitoid, Encarsia pergandiella Howard(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), on Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homopetra: Aleyrodidae)
指導教授:賴博永賴博永引用關係
指導教授(外文):Po-Yung Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:銀葉粉蝨Encarsia pergandiella寄主取食有效積溫功能反應
外文關鍵詞:Bemisia argentifoliiEncarsia pergandiellahost-feedingthermal summationfunctional response
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本實驗在研究溫度對銀葉粉蝨(Bemisia argentifolii)寄生蜂,Encarsia pergandiella的生長發育及寄生效果之影響。將E. pergandiella分別置於16、20、24、28及32℃之不同定溫下,觀察其未成熟期生長發育所須之時間, E. pergandiella從卵發育至成蟲所需之時間以在32℃下最短,為11.8天,以在16℃下最長,為26.45天;從卵發育至成蟲之有效積溫為333DD。E. pergandiella 雌蜂具有寄生及寄主取食之雙重消耗寄主現象。E. pergandiella 雌蜂對銀葉粉蝨若蟲之產卵及及寄主取食行為有搜尋、觸角敲擊、穿刺、寄主取食及清潔等行為。在24℃下,E. pergandiella 雌蜂之壽命以供給銀葉粉蝨若蟲之狀況下最長,平均約為16.07天,以不供給任何食物之狀況下最短,平均約為4.57天。E. pergandiella 雌蜂之產卵量在第5天之後就明顯下降,而寄主取食量則在第3天之後就明顯下降,每一隻雌蜂一生之總產卵量平均為78.8顆卵,其總寄主取食量平均為36.65隻若蟲。於16、20、24、28及32℃之不同定溫下,以8種不同密度之銀葉粉蝨3齡若蟲進行E. pergandiella 雌蜂之功能反應試驗。E. pergandiella 雌蜂寄生、取食及總消耗數量會隨銀葉粉蝨若蟲密度的上升,而呈現Holling第Ⅱ型功能反應式;在銀葉粉蝨若蟲密度為128隻時,被寄生的銀葉粉蝨若蟲數達到最高(16℃為2.5隻、20℃為17.17隻、24℃為25.83隻、28℃為26.25隻及32℃為19.67隻);在銀葉粉蝨若蟲密度為128隻時,被取食的銀葉粉蝨若蟲數達到最高(16℃為6.67隻、20℃為8.50隻、24℃為13.42隻、28℃為15.33隻及32℃為12.33隻);在銀葉粉蝨若蟲密度為128隻時,總消耗的銀葉粉蝨若蟲數達到最高(16℃為9.17隻、20℃為25.58隻、24℃為39.24隻、28℃為41.58隻及32℃為31.17隻);E. pergandiella 雌蜂寄生、取食及總消耗寄主之第Ⅱ型功能反應曲線高原(plateau)隨溫度的上升而上升,但在32℃時則下降。E. pergandiella 雌蜂離開葉片的比率在寄主密度愈低時,愈容易離開;雌蜂離開葉片的比率亦隨著溫度的增加而增加。總而言之, E. pergandiella之發育時間及功能反應在不同溫度之間,具有顯著之差異。
Results of the effects of temperature on the development of Encarsia pergandiella Howard show that the developmental time from egg to adult was the shortest (11.8 days) at 32℃ and was the longest (26.45 days) at 16℃. Thermal summation from egg to adult was 333DD. E. pergandiella caused mortality to its host, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, through parasitization and host-feeding. The primary behavioral pathway for E. pergandiella to successfully oviposit and feed on B. argentifolii nymphs was searching, antennation (drumming), probing, host-feeding and grooming. At 24℃, the adult longevity of E. pergandiella was the longest, at 16.07 days, when provided with B. argentifolii nymphs and the shortest at 4.57 days when not provided any food. Fecundity of E. pergandiella female decreased with the increase of the oviposition time. The number of hosts fed by E. pergandiella females decreased with the increase of the host-feeding time. The total fecundity per female was 78.8 and the total number of hosts fed per female was 36.65. The functional responses of E. pergandiella females were examined at 5 temperatures (16、20、24、28 and 32℃), and each at 8 different host densities of 3rd instar nymphs B. argentifolii. The number of parasitization, host-feeding and consumption by E. pergandiella females were increased with the increase of the density of the host. When the host density was at 128, the maximum number of host parasitized was 2.5 at 16℃, 17.17 at 20℃, 25.83 at 24℃, 26.25 at 28℃ and 19.67 at 32℃. Under the same number of the host, the maximum number of hosts fed was 6.67 at 16℃, 8.50 at 20℃, 13.42 at 24℃, 15.33 at 28℃ and 12.33 at 32℃. Also under the same number of the host, the maximum number of hosts consumed was 9.17 at 16℃, 25.58 at 20℃, 39.24 at 24℃, 41.58 at 28℃ and 31.17 at 32℃. The type II functional response curves raised with the increase of temperature, except at 32℃. A higher proportion of E. pergandiella females left the leaf at lower host density, and the proportion increased with the increase of temperature. The studies showed that the developmental time and the functional responses varied significantly at each of the 5 temperatures tested.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………...I
英文摘要………………………………………………………….IV
誌謝…………………………………………………………….. VII
表目錄…………………………………………………………….XI
圖目錄…………………………………………………………..XIII
壹、 前言…………………………………………………………1
貳、 前人研究……………………………………………………3
一、 銀葉粉蝨之分類地位、生態習性及其經濟重要性…….3
二、 銀葉粉蝨的寄生蜂……………………………………….5
三、 Encarsia pergandiella 之分類地位及形態特徵………...6
四、 Encarsia pergandiella 之生活習性…………………..….7
五、 天敵之功能反應………………………………………….9
參、材料與方法………………………………………………….13
一、 供試植物及供試昆蟲…………………………………...13
二、 E. Pergandiella之形態觀察…………………………….14
三、 不同定溫下對E. pergandiella未成熟期發育之影響….16
四、 E. Pergandiella雌成蟲行為觀察……………………….17
五、 E. Pergandiella雌成蟲之壽命、寄主取食量及產卵量.17
六、 不同定溫下,E. pergandiella雌成蟲對不同銀葉粉蝨若蟲密度之功能反應………………………………………19
肆、結果……………………………………………………..……22
一、E. pergandiella 未成熟期之外部形態描述……………..22
二、E. pergandiella 之發育過程……………………………..23
三、不同定溫下對E. pergandiella未成熟期發育之影響……26
四、E. pergandiella行為之觀察………………………………26
五、E. pergandiella雌蜂之壽命、寄主取食量及產卵量……..28
六、不同定溫下,E. pergandiella雌蜂對不同銀葉粉蝨若蟲密度之功能反應……………………………………………29
伍、討論………………………………………………………….35
一、E. pergandiella未成熟期之形態與發育過程……………35
二、溫度對E. pergandiella發育之影響………………………35
三、E. pergandiella雌蜂行為…………………………………36
四、E. pergandiella雌蜂壽命、寄生數及寄主取食數………37
五、溫度對E. pergandiella雌蜂功能反應之影響……………38
陸、結論………………………………………………………….40
柒、參考文獻……………………………………………………..41
附錄一…………………………………………………………….84
作者簡介………………………………………………………….85
表目錄
表一、在24℃下Encarsia pergandiella未成熟期之體長與體寬…...…………………………………………………….51
表二、不同溫度下Encarsia pergandiella 在銀葉粉蝨第三齡若蟲之未成熟期發育時間……………………….…………...52
表三、Encarsia pergandiella 未成熟期之發育速率與溫度間之迴歸方程式、臨界低溫及有效積溫…….…………………53
表四、Encarsi pergandiella雌蜂對銀葉粉蝨第三齡若蟲之搜尋行為所花費時間及頻率……………………………………54
表五、不同飼育狀態下Encarsi pergandiella雌蜂之壽命…...….55
表六、在5種不同定溫中,E. pergandiella雌蜂於不同銀葉粉蝨若蟲密度下之寄生數、取食數及寄主消耗數…………..56
表七、利用Holling之第II型功能反應之模式所估算之E. pergandiella雌蜂於不同定溫下之寄生功能反應式參數…………………………………………………………58
表八、利用Hassell之第III型功能反應之模式所估算之E. pergandiella雌蜂於不同定溫下之寄生功能反應式參數…………………………………………………………59
表九、利用Holling之第II型功能反應之模式所估算之E. pergandiella雌蜂於不同定溫下之取食功能反應式參數…………………………………………………………60
表十、利用Holling之第II型功能反應之模式所估算之E. pergandiella雌蜂於不同定溫下之消耗功能反應式參數…………………………………………………………61
圖目錄
圖一、產於銀葉粉蝨三齡若蟲之Encarsia pergandiella卵 (1200倍),卵殼 (chorion (ch))為半透明之薄膜,內有一層卵黃膜 (vitelline membrane (vit)),可清楚看到發育中之幼蟲…………………………………………………………62
圖二、Encarsia pergandiella第一齡幼蟲 (1200倍),A, 一齡幼蟲初期;B, 一齡幼蟲末期,蟲體末端有一明顯的尾部,腸道隱約可見…………………………………………....63
圖三、Encarsia pergandiella第二齡幼蟲 (1200倍)…………….64
圖四、Encarsia pergandiella第三齡幼蟲:A. 解剖顯微鏡觀察 (1000倍);B. 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察………………….65
圖五、Encarsia pergandiella第三齡幼蟲之氣孔……..………….66
圖六、Encarsia pergandiella前蛹:A. 解剖顯微鏡觀察 (1200倍);B. 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察………………………...67
圖七、Encarsia pergandiella蛹:A. 解剖顯微鏡觀察(1200倍);B. 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察……………………………..68
圖八、Encarsia pergandiella第一齡幼蟲在銀葉粉蝨若蟲體內生長發育之情形(1200倍)………………………………….69
圖九、Encarsia pergandiella第二齡幼蟲在銀葉粉蝨若蟲體內生長發育之情形(1200倍)………………………………….70
圖十、Encarsia pergandiella第三齡幼蟲在銀葉粉蝨若蟲體內生長發育之情形(1200倍)………………………………….71
圖十一、Encarsia pergandiella前蛹在銀葉粉蝨若蟲體內生長發育之情形(1000倍)……………………………………….72
圖十二、Encarsia pergandiella蛹在銀葉粉蝨蛹殼內生長發育之情形(1000倍)…………………………………………….73
圖十三、Encarsia pergandiellah雌蜂從銀葉粉蝨蛹殼羽化 (A, C) 及其鑽出之圓洞 (B, D):A. 解剖顯微鏡觀察;B. 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察……………………………………....74
圖十四、Encarsia pergandiella雌蜂主要的行為序列,粗箭頭代表主要的行為序列………………………………………75
圖十五、E. pergandiella雌成蟲之日寄生數(A)及日寄主取食量(B)…………………………………………………….76
圖十六、圖十六、在五個不同定溫下,E. pergandiella寄生銀葉粉蝨3齡若蟲寄生力之Holling Type II功能反應………77
圖十七、在五個不同定溫下,E. pergandiella取食銀葉粉蝨3齡若蟲之Holling Type II功能反應..………………………78
圖十八、在五個不同定溫下,E. pergandiella消耗銀葉粉蝨3齡若蟲之Holling Type II功能反應………………………..79
圖十九、溫度對Encarsia pergandiella寄生之攻擊率與處理時間的影響……………………………………………………80
圖二十、溫度對Encarsia pergandiella取食之攻擊率與處理時間的影響……………………………………………………81
圖二十一、溫度對Encarsia pergandiella消耗之攻擊率與處理時間的影響…………………………………………………82
圖二十二、在五個不同溫度下,Encarsia pergandiella從飼有八種不同銀葉粉蝨3齡若蟲的葉片上離開之百分率……83
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