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研究生:潘曉華
研究生(外文):Hsiao-hua Pan
論文名稱:溫度對蓮霧果實特徵與生理的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Temperatures on Fruit Characteristics and Physiology of Wax Apples (Syzygium samarangense Merr. et Perry)
指導教授:許仁宏許仁宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zen-hong Shü
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:蓮霧溫度花青素
外文關鍵詞:wax appletemperatureanthocyanin
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溫度對''粉紅種''蓮霧果色的形成有極大的影響,在適溫下培養,可以發展出深紅的顏色,但經轉變為高溫,則果色由深紅轉為粉紅甚至白色。本試驗分成恆溫處理、日夜同溫下以不同變溫組合(包括20℃與30℃下不同處理天數組合、緩慢升溫、快速升溫及兩次變溫)及日夜不同溫度處理,藉以觀察不同溫度處理對蓮霧果片特徵及生理的影響。
恆溫處理方面,在15℃到30℃之間,蓮霧果色與可溶性固形物都以20℃最佳,果皮組織的縱切面也是以20 ℃培養的果片花青素的呈現較明顯。
日夜同溫下以不同變溫組合方面,在培養的兩週期間,若先以20℃培養再改變成30℃培養,各處理12/2、9/5、6/8與3/11天,則果皮的重量與直徑,以9/5的處理天數最重與最大。花青素的含量會隨著高溫日數的增加而變少,甚至較處理前還差,可溶性固形物方面也有類似的結果。高溫下蛋白質與游離氨基酸在培養後都會下降。
在緩慢升溫及快速升溫試驗中,果皮的重量與直徑,皆以升溫至30 ℃的處理最差。升溫至25℃的處理,花青素表現會較30℃的處理好。在其他成分如可溶性糖、澱粉、游離氨基酸、酚類化合物及可溶性蛋白質,亦隨處理高溫日數增加,而呈現下降的情形。
兩次變溫是先以20℃培養,變溫成30℃各1、3或5天後再變回20℃培養,在重量與直徑方面,以30℃培養5天的處理最差,其他處理與20℃之間沒有差異。在30℃下處理1天並不影響花青素的濃度,但是若處理時間超過3天,則果色嚴重變差。可溶性固形物、可溶性糖、澱粉、游離氨基酸、酚類化合物及可溶性蛋白質也有相同的趨勢。抗氧化物及抗氧化酵素方面,在高溫處理後皆明顯較培養前上升。
在5個日夜變溫組合試驗中,以25℃/20℃在果色及可溶性固性物方面有較佳的表現,適當高溫會使果片增大。而其他成分方面,30℃/15℃的處理結果均明顯的較25℃/20℃處理結果差。
為比較''粉紅種''蓮霧掛樹果實以30℃處理與常溫下生育的差異,本試驗在冬季較低溫度環境下,於同一果園內,以局部加溫果串的方式,作果實生育差異的調查。結果顯示果長、果寬、果重、體積、可溶性固形物皆會隨生育日數增加而增加,而以自然環境下的表現較好。pH值是以高溫處理的值較高。花青素方面,自然環境下會隨著生育日數增加而上升;高溫處理者反而呈下降趨勢。可溶性糖、澱粉、可溶性蛋白質及總酚類化合物皆會隨著生育日數增加而上升,而葉綠素及游離氨基酸則會隨著生育日數增加而下降,其中也是以高溫處理的含量較低。抗氧化物質及抗氧化酵素方面,H2O2、ascorbate peroxidase活性、ascorbate含量、glutathione含量及glutathione reductase活性皆以高溫處理含量較高。
本試驗利用果皮培養,以30℃/25℃日夜溫的環境篩選耐熱的藥劑。結果顯示adenine、acetylsalicylic acid、salicylic acid、H2O2、ascorbic acid、betaine和Ca(NO3)2.4H2O的添加均對花青素的形成沒有幫助。且不論何種濃度處理,與新鮮果實和適溫20℃比較,花青素含量都較低。
再以adenine、acetylsalicylic acid、salicylic acid、H2O2及ascorbic acid處理蓮霧掛樹果實,也不能增進果實的品質。大多數處理的結果,與對照組的差異不大。以adenine處理則果重、可溶性固形物的效果較對照組差,且各藥劑噴施的濃度太高會對果實造成藥害。
Temperature has a considerable effect on the color formation of fruit skin in ''Pink'' wax apple. Optimal temperature promotes red color, while low and high temperatures demote. The first part of the present study uses constant, in combination with slow-increase, fast-increase, one-stage shift, two-stage shift and different day/night temperatures to investigation the influence of different temperatures on the characteristics and physiology of wax apple skin discs.
Anthocyanin and total soluble solid (TSS) concentrations were the greatest in the 20℃ treated discs under constant temperatures, from 15℃ to 30℃, for 14 days. When temperature was shifted from 20℃ to 30℃for 12/2、9/5、6/8 and 3/11 days, the longest and heaviest discs were found in the 9/5 days treatment. Anthocyanin and TSS concentrations decreased following the increased exposure under high temperature. The color was even worse than the untreated ones. Both protein and free amino acid concentrations decreased after culture.
In the slow-increase and fast-increase treatments, disc characteristics were better in the treatments with final temperatures set at 25℃ than those set at 30℃. The concentrations of total soluble sugars, starch, total phenolic compounds, free amino acids and soluble protein were all decreased in response to the increase of temperature.
Two-stage shift treatments were discs first cultured under 20℃ for 7 days , then shifted to 30℃for 1, 3 or 5 days and return to 20℃ afterwards. Discs exposed under 30℃ for 5 days had the lightest weight and shortest diameter. Anthocyanin concentration was not affected in discs exposed under 30℃ for 1 day, however, the concentration decreased when the exposure time increased to more than 3 days. The concentrations of TSS, soluble sugars, starch, total phenolic compounds, free amino acids and soluble protein had similar results. The concentration of antioxidants and the activities of the relevant enzymes increased significantly after the high temperature treatments.
Among the 5 different day/night temperature treatments, 25℃/20℃ had the highest anthocyanin and TSS concentrations. Although optimal high temperatures increased the diameters, skin discs treated under 30℃/15℃ had worse characteristics and less component concentrations than those ones under 25℃/20℃.
To study the effects of high temperatures on the development of intact ''Pink'' wax apple fruits on the tree, fruit clusters either under ambient or artificially and locally increased to 30℃ were compared in the winter in the same orchard. The results showed that fruits under ambient had better fruit length, width, weight, volume and TSS. Higher pH was found in the juice of high temperature treated fruits. In contrast, higher anthocyanin concentration was recorded in the ambient fruits. The concentrations of soluble sugars, starch, soluble protein and total phenolic compounds increased, while chlorophyll and free amino acids decreased following the development of the fruit. All the concentrations of these compounds were lower in the fruits under high temperature treatment. The concentrations of H2O2, ascorbate, glutathione and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were higher in the fruits of the high temperature treatment.
Different chemicals were added to high-temperature cultured skin discs of wax apple fruits for screening high temperature tolerance. The results showed either adenine, acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, H2O2, ascorbic acid, betaine or calcium nitrate could not increase anthocyanin formation. Field sprays of adenine, acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, H2O2 and ascorbic acid on intact wax apple fruits did not improve the quality of the fruits either. High concentrations caused chemical-induced damages on the fruit.
中文摘要................................................I
英文摘要...............................................IV
誌謝..................................................VII
目錄.................................................VIII
圖表索引................................................X
壹、前言................................................1
貳、前人研究......................................................3
參、材料與方法.....................................................25
一、不同溫度處理對''粉紅種''蓮霧果實特徵與生理的影響
(一)、溫度對蓮霧離體培養果片特徵與生理的影響.........25
(二)、田間模擬高溫對掛樹蓮霧果實品質的影響.......27
二、''粉紅種''蓮霧果實耐高溫藥劑的篩選
(一)、以離體培養果皮篩選耐高溫藥劑...................36
(二)、以田間果串噴施藥劑篩選耐高溫藥劑...............37
肆、結果...............................................39
一、不同溫度處理對''粉紅種''蓮霧果實特徵與生理的影響.....39
(一)、溫度對蓮霧離體培養果片特徵與生理的影響.........39
1、不同溫度處理對蓮霧離體培養果片特徵與生理的影響......39
2、蓮霧離體培養果片期間化學成分的變化..................48
(二)、田間模擬高溫對掛樹蓮霧果實品質的影響...........56
二、''粉紅種''蓮霧果實耐高溫藥劑的篩選...................67
(一)、以離體培養果皮篩選耐高溫藥劑...................67
(二)、以田間果串噴施藥劑篩選耐高溫藥劑...............75
伍、討論...............................................88
一、不同溫度處理對''粉紅種''蓮霧果實特徵與生理的影響.....88
(一)、溫度對蓮霧離體培養果片特徵與生理的影響.........88
(二)、田間模擬高溫對掛樹蓮霧果實品質的影響.......90
二、''粉紅種''蓮霧果實耐高溫藥劑的篩選...................92
(一)、以離體培養果皮篩選耐高溫藥劑...................92
(二)、以田間果串噴施藥劑篩選耐高溫藥劑...............94
陸、參考文獻...........................................96
附錄..................................................114
作者簡介..............................................118
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