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研究生:吳振碩
研究生(外文):Jenn-Shoun Wu
論文名稱:套袋及網室栽培對蓮霧果實品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Bagging and Screen House culture on Fruit Quality of Waxapple(Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry)
指導教授:柯立祥柯立祥引用關係顏昌瑞
指導教授(外文):Dr.Lih-Shang KeChung-Ruey Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:蓮霧套袋網室品質
外文關鍵詞:wax applebaggingscreen housequality
相關次數:
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蓮霧(Syzygium samarangense Merr. et Perry)為本省高屏地區相當重要之經濟果樹,但由於氣候高溫多溼,病蟲害相對提高,尤其是東方果實蠅肆虐相當嚴重。於蓮霧開花著果後如無適當之保護防治措施,則果實無一能倖免逃過果蠅為害。利用套袋雖可有效防止果蠅為害,但尚有許多不良的後遺症,許多果樹已採網室栽培。唯網室栽培是否適合蓮霧開花後之生產,則有待進一步探討。因此,本研究乃針對果實套袋,包括紙質套袋6種及塑膠套袋4種,外加果實不套袋之果園網室覆蓋等共11種處理來進行比較。
結果顯示,塑膠套袋對蓮霧果實大小之促進效果最強,但有降低果實脆度及硬度之趨勢。紙質套袋對果實大小之影響較小,但果實硬度及脆度較塑膠套袋者高。以紙質套袋之蓮霧果實,呈現較紅之趨勢,其中以白色通企及黃色良果紙袋之果實最紅,塑膠套袋有增加果實含水量,降低果實糖度及糖/酸比之現象,因此其內在品質及風味較差。
不同材質套袋,其袋內微氣候並不相同。就溫度而言,在中午(12:00)時段,塑膠套袋內溫度有較紙質套袋低之趨勢。在濕度方面,以塑膠套袋內之相對濕度最高,其次為紙質套袋者。就不同材質及色澤之套袋對遮光及袋內光強度之影響而言,有顏色(黃或藍)之套袋,其遮光效果較白色套袋者強。
至於套袋對蓮霧病蟲害及裂果之影響,利用果實套袋可明顯減少病蟲危害,但不同種類之套袋間仍有病蟲害發生高低之差異,病害率從8-53%,而蟲害率從0-21%不等,且不同地區亦因套袋前之田間病蟲害防治管理良寙,而顯著影響套袋對預防病蟲害發生之效果。但網室栽培,果實之病蟲害率,一般均顯著的降低。裂果方面,一般以塑膠套袋之裂果率較高(12-63%),紙質套袋之裂果率較低(10-45%),但利用網室栽培而不套袋之果實,其裂果率可明顯降低。
利用PE網室覆蓋而果實不套袋,以取代傳統套袋(白色富士紙袋),結果顯示,在中午時段(12:00),傳統套袋內之溫度顯著高於網室內未套袋者。一般網室內相對濕度均顯著低於套袋內相對濕度。在樹冠內之光強度,則以PE網室者較傳統紙套袋內之光強度高。傳統紙袋之果實大小及重量略高於網室栽培者,而硬度與脆度則略低,但兩者除內埔地區之網室栽培者之硬度顯著較高外,兩者各項物性指標並無顯著差。果實色澤方面,亦幾無差異。至於果實之內在品質,兩種不同果實發育管理模式之間,除屏東試區(冬果)之糖/酸比較低,風味較差外,其餘各項品質指標亦均無差異。網室栽培之果實病害率顯著降低。傳統套袋之蟲害率高低受套袋前之田間蟲害防治良寙之影響。未套袋之網室栽培者,其裂果率均低於傳統套袋者,特別是在春果(內埔試區)之效果更為明顯。
傳統紙套袋及網室覆蓋兩種不同果實保護措施,網室栽培者除第一次因網室初期投資成本較高外,可從套袋之材料及人工成本上抵扣回收,且第二年後或開花2-3次後,生產成本就相對愈低,每年可節省成本10-15萬左右。而蓮霧採收後之可售重量,網室栽培者亦遠高於傳統套袋者。蓮霧採用網室栽培而不必套袋可明顯減少病蟲害及裂果,進而提高單位面積可售產量。以網室進行生產主要是以可售產量取勝的方式進行,故以PE網室栽培,配合適當的栽培管理及產期調節,不失為農民的一個增加收益的栽培模式,可提供農友參考採用。
Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense Merr. Et Perry) is one of the most important fruit crops in southern Taiwan. Due to the hot and humid weather conditions in this region, prevalence of insects and diseases is always the key factor affecting the production. Among the pests, oriental fruit-fly is none to the next. After flowering, if proper protection measures are not taken, no fruit can be harvested. Most of the farmers use bagging to prevent fruits from infestation by the insects. Although bagging is effective, deteriorate problems come after that. Some farmers, then, turn to another practice of netting the plants/field. However, netting of the wax-apple field after flowering is good or not for fruit production is still unclear, more studies are needed. This study is attempted to compare the effects from the treatments of 6 paper baggings and 4 plastic baggings of the fruits, and netting of the orchards.
Results indicated that plastic bagging increased fruit size, but decreased crispness and hardiness, and paper bagging was just the opposite. White and/or yellow paper bagging was found with heavier red fruits than the others. In fruit quality, plastic baggings did increase more water content of the fruits than other treatments, thus, sugar content, flavor and other parameters for quality were reduced.
Microenvironments varied in the treatments with different material of the bags. For temperature changes at different times in a day, plastic baggings were lower than that of the paper baggings at noon. Humidity at noon in the plastic baggings was higher than that in the paper baggings. Difference in material and/or color of the bags did affect sheddingness, colored bags (yellow or blue) were found with better shedding effect than white ones,
For the difference in cracking and pest severity of the fruits, fruit bagging significantly reduce pest severity. Disease incidence ranged between 8 and 53% and insects between 0 and 21%, they were greatly affect by the management situation/condition of the orchard before bagging. So was the efficacy of netting the orchard. Disease and insects were also significantly reduced in the net-house. Plastic bagged fruits were found with higher percentage of cracking than the paper bagged, the former was 12-63% and the latter 10-45%, respectively.A few cracking fruits were found in the net-house.
Comparing to the conventional method bagging in the white paper bags, if wax-apple trees were netted after flowering, the temperature at noon in the paper bags was much higher than that in the net-house without bagging, and so was the humidity. The light intensity inside the canopy of netted trees was higher than that of the paper bagged. Size and/or weight of fruit in the bags was larger than the netted, and hardiness and crispness were just the opposite. However, no statistic difference was observed between the two except the plot at Neipu which was found with significant difference in hardness for the fruits in the net-house. For fruit color, no difference was observed between the two treatments. The same trend was also obtained for fruit quality. Except the Pingtung plot which was found with less sugar content (low sugar/acid ratio) in the winter fruits, no difference was observed in the other quality parameters between the two treatments. For disease and insect severity, netting greatly reduced the incidence, and efficacy of the conventional bagging method was greatly affected by the management condition/situation of the orchard before bagging. Fruit cracking was found less in the netted fruits than that in the paper bagged ones, and it is significantly different in the spring fruits at Neipu plot.
In short, either conventional bagging or net-housing increased the production cost greatly. Although netting in the initial stage stands for a large portion of production cost, the cost, however, can be reimbursed or saved from bagging wages for every year/season, and the marketable yield for netting is also better. Therefore, this study revealed that the use of net-house for wax-apple production is worthy trying or it is profitable.
目  錄
中文摘要..................... Ⅰ
英文摘要..................... Ⅳ
誌謝.......................ⅤⅡ
目  錄.....................ⅤⅢ
表索引......................ⅩⅠ
一、前言..................... 1
二、前人研究................... 5
(一)網室設施栽培................ 5
(二)果實套袋保護措施.............. 6
(三)果實保護措施對果實裂果........... 9
三、材料與方法..................11
(一)供試材料..................11
1. 屏東市試區.................11
2. 內埔試區..................12
(二)試驗項目..................12
(三)田間試驗設計................15
(四)調查及分析項目...............16
1.氣象紀錄..................16
2.不同套袋對蓮霧果實病害、蟲害、鳥害及裂果之影
響.....................16
3.不同套袋對蓮霧果實品質之影響........16
4.測定項目..................17
四、結果.....................20
(一)不同材質果袋對蓮霧果實發育及品質之影響...20
1.不同材質果袋內溫度變化............20
2.不同材質果袋內濕度變化............21
3.不同材質果袋內光度變化............25
4.網室內外光度變化...............27
5.套袋對蓮霧果實大小之影響...........29
6.套袋對蓮霧果實硬度及脆度之影響........33
7.套袋對蓮霧果實顏色之影響...........35
8.套袋對蓮霧果實糖度及酸度之影響........39
9.套袋對蓮霧果實含水量之影響..........43
10.套袋對蓮霧果實病、蟲害率之影響....... 45
11.套袋對蓮霧果實裂果之影響.......... 48
(二)蓮霧網室栽培之可行性評估..........50
1.傳統套袋處理及網室栽培對蓮霧果實品質之影響..50
2.傳統套袋處理栽培方式及網室栽培生產成本比較..59
3.傳統套袋處理栽培方式及網室栽培對蓮霧可售產量之比
較......................62
五、討論.....................65
(一)不同材質套袋對蓮霧果實發育及品質之影響...65
(二)蓮霧簡易網室栽培與傳統套袋處理之微氣候、果實發育
、品質、病蟲害、裂果及成本與可售產量之比較..68
六、參考文獻...................70
表索引
表1.不同套袋處理之蓮霧果袋內溫度比較.......23
表2.不同套袋處理之蓮霧果袋內濕度比較.......24
表3.不同材質果袋透光光強度之比較.........26
表4.網室內外光強度之比較.............28
表5.套袋對蓮霧果實長度及寬度之影響........31
表6.套袋對蓮霧果實重量及體積之影響........32
表7.套袋對蓮霧果實硬度及脆度之影響........34
表8.套袋對蓮霧果實色相角度及色彩濃度之影響....37
表9.套袋對蓮霧果實亮度之影響...........38
表10.套袋對蓮霧果實糖度及可滴定酸含量之影響... 41
表11.套袋對蓮霧果實糖酸比之影響......... 42
表12.套袋對蓮霧果實含水量之影響......... 44
表13.套袋對蓮霧果實病、蟲害率之影響....... 47
表14.套袋對蓮霧果實裂果率之影響......... 49
表15.傳統套袋(白色富士紙袋)與PE網室對溫度及濕度之影 
  響......................53
表16.傳統套袋(白色富士紙袋)與PE網室對遮光率及光強度之影
  響......................54
表17.傳統套袋(白色富士紙袋)與PE網室對果實物理性狀之影 
  響......................55
表18.傳統套袋(白色富士紙袋)與PE網室對果實色澤之影        響......................56
表19.傳統套袋(白色富士紙袋)與PE網室對果實品質之影
  響......................57
表20.傳統套袋(白色富士紙袋)與PE網室對果實病蟲害及裂果之影
  響.   ..................58
表21、網室及套袋處理每公頃生產成本分析表.....61
表22、網室及套袋處理每公頃產量分析表.......64
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