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研究生:PhindileM.Dlamini
研究生(外文):Phindile M.Dlamini
論文名稱:蕃茄早疫病之生物與化學防治
論文名稱(外文):Biological and Chemical Management of Early Blight Disease of Tomato
指導教授:劉顯達
指導教授(外文):Shan-Da Liu, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:156
中文關鍵詞:Alternaria solani生物防治菌殺菌劑綜合防治
外文關鍵詞:Alternaria solanibiocontrol agentsfungicidesintegrated management
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蕃茄及其他茄科作物之早疫病為病源菌Alternaria solani(Ellis and Mart.)Jones and Grout所引起,在露水與雨水量多高濕時會造成嚴重葉部病害。現行之藥劑防治在雨季高溫時也不易防治成功。本研究係在實驗室與溫室內探討拮抗微生物、藥劑及抗病品種防治早疫病之可行性。而結果顯示,利用生物防治菌、殺菌劑或抗病品種可達到此目的,即以Trichoderma harzianum Th2菌株及Actinomycetes sp. ML-1菌株於溫室內施用蕃茄植株可抑制早疫病,接種病原菌前 24小時施用拮抗菌比接種後24小時施用或同時施用之防治效果好,混合使用Th2及ML-1之效果未較單獨施用Th2好。化學藥劑實驗中,Copper hydroxide及Polyoxins比其它藥劑防治效果好,接種病原菌前施藥處理比接種後施藥處理之防治效果,於接種7天後顯示前者處理之效果比較好,但在第14天則二種處理防治效果並無差異。於抗病品種檢測,第一次實驗中有7個品種,第二次實驗時有1個品種表現抗病性,因之,綜合利用生物防治菌,抗病品種及化學藥劑應該可以防治蕃茄早疫病,減少環境污染,並可降低殺菌劑對病原菌抗藥性菌系產生之選擇壓力。

Early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Mart.) Jones and Grout is a devastating foliar disease of tomato and other solanaceous crops during periods of heavy dew, rainfall and humidity. Presently, the disease is controlled by fungicides sprays, which have led to the pathogen developing resistance. Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted to elucidate the integration of biological control agents, fungicides and resistant cultivars to manage early blight disease of tomato. The results showed that early blight could be managed by the use of biological control agents, resistant cultivars and fungicides. Trichoderma harzianum and ML-1 were able to suppress early blight symptoms when used in the greenhouse. They were more effective when applied 24 hrs prior to inoculation than when applied 24 hrs after inoculation or applied simultaneously. Mixtures of bacteria strains and Trichoderma harzianum did not improve the level of management than when Trichoderma harzianum was applied alone. When chemicals were tested for their efficacy in managing early blight in the greenhouse, Copper hydroxide and polyoxins gave better management than other chemicals. There was no significant difference between curative and protectant methods when plants were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. When cultivars were screened for resistance to early blight, seven lines in the first experiment and one in the second exhibited resistance. Integrated management program that would exploit Trichoderma harzianum, resistant cultivars in connection with fungicides spray programs would play an important role in the management of early blight disease with less environmental hazards. They would also offer good opportunities to reduce selection pressure for fungicide resistance.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT i
CHINESE ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 7
III. MATERIALS AND METHODS 39
A. Isolation of Alternaria solani.............................39
B. Enhancing sporulation of Alternaria solani 40
C. The effect of biocontrol agents in managing
early blight disease 43
D. The evaluation of fungicides for early blight management 56
E. Screening of tomato cultivars for resistance
to early blight disease 62
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………………65
A. Enhancing sporulation of Alternaria solani 65
B. The effect of biocontrol agents in managing early
blight disease 75
C. Evaluation of fungicides for early blight
management 101
D. Screening of tomato cultivars for resistance to
early blight 119
CONCLUSION 126
VI. REFERENCES 129
V11. BIOSKETCH OF AUTHOR…………………………..157
LIST OF TABLES
Table
1. Sporulation responses of Alternaria solani in different
media and lighting conditions 70
2. The effect of different light conditions on sporulation
of Alternaria solani cultured on potato dextrose agar,
V-8 juice agar, Alternaria sporulation agar and water
agar……………………………………………………….71
3. The effect of different media on the sporulation of
Alternaria solani at different light conditions…………72
4. The effect of pH on sporulation of Alternaria solani
in V-8 agar medium cultured for 7 days 74
5. The effect of biocontrol agents on mycelia growth
of Alternaria solani in dual culture 76
6. The effect of five chemicals and five biocontrol
agents on the growth of Alternaria solani inV-8 liquid
culture 80
7. The control of early blight with antagonists 83
8. The effect of application timings, varieties and
biocontrol agents in managing early blight of
tomato 7 days after application 91
9. The effect of application timings, varieties and
biocontrol agents in managing early blight of
tomato 14 days after application 92
10. The effect of biocontrol agents applied at 7 days
interval on the management of early blight of
tomato 95
11. The effect of mixtures of Trichoderma harzianum
and antagonistic bacteria in controlling early
blight disease of tomato 100
12. The adaptability of Alternaria solani to chemicals in
successive subcultures 109
13. The effect of chemicals timings (post- and
pre-application) to control tomato early blight 115
14. The effect of chemicals timings (post-and
pre-application) to control tomato early blight 116
15. The effect of post-application timing on early
blight management .118
16. Screening of 31 tomato cultivars for resistance to
early blight disease 123
17. Screening of 27 tomato cultivars for resistance to early
blight disease 125
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
1. The population survival of bacteria strains on
tomato 87
2. The effect of different concentrations of chemicals on
the mycelia growth of Alternaria solani 106

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1. 蔣新苗,<臺灣與大陸地區在收養方面存在的區際法律衝突及其解決辦法>,《法律評論》,第六十五卷第一∼三期合刊(八十八年三月),頁30-37。
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