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研究生:AliouDiongue
研究生(外文):Aliou Diongue
論文名稱:番茄夜蛾Helicoverpaarmigera(Hubner)(鱗翅目-夜蛾科)在番茄、棉花及TropicalSodaApple之產卵偏好
論文名稱(外文):Ovipositional preferences of the tomato fruitworm (Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple
指導教授:賴博永 
指導教授(外文):Po-Yung Lai, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:番茄夜蛾產卵番茄棉花tropical soda apple揮發性化學物
外文關鍵詞:Helicoverpa armigeraovipositiontomatocottontropical soda applevolatile chemical
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本研究是利用大尼龍網箱來進行番茄夜蛾在番茄、棉花及tropical soda apple下產卵偏好之實驗。研究結果發現所有雌番茄夜蛾比起一般生長時期,較偏好在番茄及棉花的開花期產卵。為了證實是否由花引誘雌番茄夜蛾產卵,將兩株處於同樣生長期的無花番茄植株及已開花番茄植株做比較,發現花的存在與否並不會影響雌番茄夜蛾的產卵行為。同樣地,以人工將花朵置於一般生長時期的番茄植株也得到相同結果。而番茄植株中有無受損的果實比有受損的果實更吸引雌番茄夜蛾產卵。
以人工置放取代自然產下的蟲卵或以紫外線殺除蟲卵,並不影響番茄夜蛾的產卵行為。另外,相較於另一株沒有蟲卵的番茄植株,雌番茄夜蛾在已有蟲卵的番茄、棉花或tropical soda apple上,並不會再產卵或產較少的卵。會影響產卵是因為雌蟲在產卵時所做的化學標示。類似此種的化學標示,在雌番茄夜蟲是不存在的。
進一步的研究是要發現由放在密封的丙烯酸溶劑裡的tropical soda apple萃取出揮發性化學物的吸引性。利用生物檢定可發現在沾有溶在已浣中的揮發性萃取物的濾紙及只有沾有已烷的濾紙上,產卵數會有明顯差異。以tropical soda apple中分離出的揮發性化學物質可檢測出番茄夜蛾產卵對於5-butyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone有相當大的反應。

Oviposition on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple by the tomato fruitworm (TFW) Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was studied in large nylon net cages. The results showed that TFW female significantly preferred to lay eggs on the flowering stage of tomato and cotton as compared to their vegetative stages. To find out whether the flowers stimulated the female’s ovipositing; tomato plant with flowers removed was compared with another flowering tomato plant at the same physiological stage, the results showed that the presence of flowers did not affect the egg laying behavior of TFW female. Similarly, flowers placed manually on vegetative tomato plant did not have any effect on the egg-laying of TFW. Plants with undamaged tomato fruits attracted TFW female for more egg-laying than the plants with damaged fruits.
Plants with manually placed eggs, naturally laid eggs removed, or eggs killed by UV light did not influence the oviposition behavior of the TFW. However, a mated TFW female avoided egg-laying or laid fewer eggs on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple that had already had naturally eggs present, as compared to the respective plants not having had eggs present. This deterrence of egg-laying is attributed to the presence of chemical markers deposited by egg laying female. Similar deterrent chemicals were not present in the body scales of TFW females.
Additional studies were carried out to investigate the attractiveness of the volatile chemicals extracted from the tropical soda apple volatile in an airtight acrylic chamber. The bioassay results showed that there was a significant difference in the number of eggs laid on filter papers coated with volatile extracts dissolved in hexane compared to the filter papers coated with hexane alone. The bioassay of the chemicals isolated from the volatile of tropical soda apple indicated that TFW showed significant ovipositional response to the chemical 5-butyldihydro-2 (3H)-furanone.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………...i
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………..iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………..iv
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………..xi
I. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………….1
II. LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………….5
2.1. Description of the genus Helicoverpa…………………...6
2.2. Distribution, host plants and damages…………………...7
2.3. Biology…………………………………………………..9
2.4. Life history……………………………………………..12
2.5. Oviposition……………………………………………..14
2.6. Role of volatile in host finding and oviposition………..17
III. MATERIALS AND METHODS……………………………22
3.1. Host plants……………………………………………...22
3.2. Rearing of TFW………………………………………...23
3.3. Arrangement of test plants and release of TFW adults in oviposition cage. …………………………………….26
3.4. Oviposition preference of TFW between vegetative
and flowering stages of tomato and cotton……………..27
3.5. Effect of flowers removed on TFW oviposition
on tomato……………………………………………….27
3.6. Effect of manually placed flowers on TFW
oviposition on tomato at the vegetative stage…………..28
3.7. Effect of damaged fruits on the TFW oviposition
on tomato……………………………………………….28
3.8 . Effect of the presence of naturally laid eggs on TFW
oviposition on tomato, cotton, and tropical soda apple...29
3.9. Effect of manually placed eggs on TFW oviposition
on tomato……………………………………………….30
3.10. Effect of the removal of naturally laid eggs on TFW
oviposition on tomato…………………………………..30
3.11. Effect of the eggs killed by UV light on the TFW oviposition on tomato…………………………………..31
3.12. Effect of the presence of body scales on TFW oviposition
on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple……………...32
3.13. Volatile extraction from the vegetative stage of tropical
soda apple with or without the presence of TFW
eggs ……………………………………………………33
3.14. I-tube bioassay of the volatile and the chemicals isolated from tropical soda apple………………………………..35
3.15. Statistical analyses……………………………………...36
IV. RESULTS…………………………………………………….37
4.1. Oviposition preference of TFW between vegetative
and flowering stages on tomato and cotton…………….37
4.2. Effect of the removal of flowers on TFW oviposition
on tomato……………………………………………….39
4.3. Effect of manually placed flowers on TFW oviposition
on tomato at the vegetative stage ………………………39
4.4. Effect of damaged fruits on TFW oviposition
on tomato……………………………………………….42
4.5. Effect of the presence of naturally laid eggs on TFW oviposition on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple……………………………………………………44
4.6. Effect of manually placed eggs on TFW oviposition
on tomato……………………………………………….44
4.7. Effect of the removal of naturally laid egg on TFW oviposition on tomato…………………………………..47
4.8. Effect of the eggs killed by UV light on the TFW oviposition on tomato…………………………………..47
4.9. Effect of the presence of body scales on TFW oviposition on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple……………...50
4.10. Bioassay of the volatile extracted from the vegetative stage of tropical soda apple…………………………….52
4.11. Bioassay of the volatile extracted from the tropical soda apple with or without the presence of TFW eggs……...52
4.12. Bioassay of the chemicals isolated from the tropical soda apple……………………………………………………55
V. DISCUSSION………………………………………………...57
5.1. Oviposition preference of TFW between vegetative
and flowering stages of tomato and cotton……………..57
5.2. Effect of the removal and the manually placed flowers
on TFW oviposition on tomato…………………………58
5.3. Effect of damaged fruits on TFW oviposition on tomato…………………………………………………..59
5.4. Effect of the presence of naturally laid eggs on TFW oviposition on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple…………….……………………………………...61
5.5. Effect of manually placed eggs and removal of naturally laid eggs on TFW oviposition on tomato………………62
5.6. Effect of the eggs killed by UV light on TFW
oviposition on tomato…………………………………..63
5.7. Effect of the presence of body scales on TFW
oviposition on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple……………………………………………………64
5.8. Bioassay of the volatile extracted and the chemicals
isolated from the tropical soda apple…………………...65
5.9. Bioassay of the volatile extracted from tropical soda
apple with or without the presence of TFW eggs………67
VI. CONCLUSION………………………………………………68
VII. REFERENCES………………………………………………71
VIII. APPENDIX…………………………………………………...83
Figure 1. Rearing steps of TFW……………………………….83
Figure 2. Extraction of volatile from tropical soda apple
plant………………………………………………...84
Figure 3. Rotary evaporator Erlenmeyer……………………...84
Figure 4. Bioassay in I-tubes (250 cm in length and 15 cm in
diameter)……………………………………………85
Figure 5. I-tubes (250 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter),
covered with black cloth during the bioassay………85
Figure 6. A. Tropical soda apple leaves, B. Oviposited tropical
soda apple leaves…………………………………...86
Figure 7. Diet composition of TFW…………………………...87
VIIII. BIOSKETCH OF AUTHOR……………………………….88
LIST OF TABLES
Tables Pages
1. Oviposition preference of TFW between flowering and vegetative
stages of tomato and cotton ……………………………………….38
2. Effect of the removal of flowers on TFW oviposition on
tomato ……………………………………………………………..40
3. Effect of manually placed flowers on TFW oviposition on tomato at
the vegetative stage………………………………………………..41
4. Effect of damaged fruits on TFW oviposition on tomato…………43
5. Effect of the presence of naturally laid eggs on TFW
oviposition on tomato, cotton and tropical soda apple……………..45
6. Effect of manually placed eggs on TFW oviposition on tomato….46
7. Effect of the removal of naturally laid eggs on TFW oviposition on
tomato ……………………………………………………………..48
8. Effect of the eggs killed by UV light on TFW oviposition on
tomato……………………………………………………………...49
9. Effect of the presence of body scales on TFW oviposition on
tomato, cotton, and tropical soda apple ………………………….51
10. Bioassay of the volatile extracted from the vegetative stage of
tropical soda apple……………………………………………….53
11. Bioassay of the volatile extracted from the vegetative stage of
tropical soda apple with or without the presence of TFW eggs….54
12. Bioassay of the chemicals isolated from the tropical soda
apple……………………………………………………………..56

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