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研究生:倪貝古
研究生(外文):Nisabelgho Joseph Ouedraogo
論文名稱:施用堆肥對酸性黏土、水稻生長與產量的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Compost Application on Some Characteristics of Clay Acid Soil, Paddy Rice Growth and Yield
指導教授:蔡秀隆
指導教授(外文):Shiow-Long Tsai, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:水稻產量特性堆肥土壤物理化學特性
外文關鍵詞:Rice yields characteristicsCompostSoil physicochemical properties
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在增加稻米生產的永續土壤管理上,有機質諸如堆肥扮演著關鍵的角色。本研究在探討施用堆肥(由牛糞、盤固拉草、稻殼、米糠所製成)與化學肥料對酸性黏土的物理化學特性、水稻生長與產量的影響。於西元2001年春作與夏作在國立屏東科技大學進行本試驗。採用台中秈10號水稻為試驗材料。田間試驗有施用堆肥 20 t/ha(Cp)、施用化學肥料(Ccf)、施用堆肥 6 t/ha加施化學追肥(CpTd)、施用堆肥 10 t/ha加施化學肥料(CpCcf)等四個處理。塑膠網室(P-house)試驗包括不施肥料(Ck)、施用化學肥料(Ccf)、以及施用堆肥 12.5、25、50、75與100 t/ha(CpL1~5)等七個處理。
由試驗結果得知,在田間試驗後土壤的總體密度、土粒密度與孔隙度在處理間沒有顯著差異。土壤化學特性如pH、EC與磷含量在處理間亦沒有顯著差異。然而土壤pH與總氮(TN)在CpCcf處理則高於Ccf處理,而在Cp處理的有機碳(OC)與有機質(OM)顯著增加,但是鉀(K)含量減少。
在P-house試驗後得知,CpL3~CpL5堆肥處理可以改善土壤物理特性諸如總體密度、土粒密度、孔隙度與持水力。另外,在施用高量堆肥的處理(CpL4與CpL5)可以改善土壤化學特性諸如增加pH、OC、OM、P與Na,降低EC,但是TN與K含量則稍微減少。
在田間CpCcf與Ccf處理下,水稻生長優於Cp與CpTd處理。Cp、CpTd與Ccf處理間的稻穀產量則沒有顯著差異。在P-house的試驗,CpL4與CpL5處理有較高的株高,Ccf處理則有較高的分蘗數與總生物質量,但是CpL4、CpL5與Ccf處理間的稻穀產量則沒有顯著差異。

Organic matter such as compost can play key role in sustainable soil fertility management to increase rice production. The compost made of cattle droppings, pangola grass, rice hull, and rice bran mixture and chemical fertilizer were used to study their effects physicochemical properties of clay acid soil and growth and yield of paddy rice. The study was conducted at the National Pingtung University of Science and Technology during spring and summer seasons of 2001. The treatments of the field experiment were: Cp: compost at 20 t/ha, Ccf: chemical fertilizers, CpTd: compost at 6 t/ha + topdressing, and CpCcf: compost at 10 t/ha + chemical fertilizers, and those of the plastic house experiment were: Ck: blank, Ccf: chemical fertilizers, CpL1 to CpL5: compost at 12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 t/ha. Paddy rice variety Taichung Sen No 10 was used.
It was observed that, under the field condition, bulk density, particle density and total porosity of the post experiment soil were not significantly different from the treatments, though a slight increase of those parameters was observed as compared to the pre-experiment soil. As for chemical properties of post experiment soil, values of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and phosphorus concentration (P) were not significantly different among the treatments. However, in CpCcf treatment, the values of pH and total nitrogen (TN) were higher than those in Ccf treatment In the Cp treatment, organic carbon (OC) and organic matter (OM) increased significantly, but potassium (K) content was low. Under P-house conditions, it was found that, compost treatments CpL3 to CpL5 improved physical properties of post experiment soil more than Ccf. Bulk and particle densities decreased while total porosity and moisture holding capacity were increased. Total porosity of soil in treatment Ccf was also increased due to abundance of roots. It was also found that, compost application at higher levels (CpL4 and CpL5) improved chemical properties of post experiment soil more than Ccf and Ck. The value of pH, increased in all the compost-applied treatments, while it was decreased in Ccf treatment. The P concentration, OC, OM and Na content were increased in CpL4 and CpL5 treatments more than Ccf and Ck. The EC was decreased in the compost-applied treatments, while in Ccf treatment it was increased. The TN and K content decreased slightly in the compost treatments.
Under field conditions, growth characteristics were somewhat different among the treatments. The rice growth in treatment CpCcf and Ccf was much better than that in treatments of Cp and CpTd. However Grain yield were not differed from Cp, CpTd and Ccf treatments. Under plastic house conditions, plants height was higher in compost treatments of CpL4 and CpL5 at 100 DAT. The highest tiller number and total biomass were observed in treatment Ccf. However it was recorded that grain yield of CpL4 CpL5 and Ccf treatments were not significantly different.

TABLE OF CONENTS
ABSTRACT (English)……………………………………………vi
ABSTRACT (Chinese)……………………………………….…..ix
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS……………………………………..………..xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………….……………..….xiii
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………….....xviii
LIST OF FIGURES.………………………………………...…xxii
INTRODUCTION……………….…………………………....…..1
LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………..………..…...5
1. Soil physical characteristics……………………………………..5
1.1. Particle density……………………………………….……..5
1.2. Bulk density…………………………………….…………..6
1.3.Total porosity………………………………….………….…6
2. Soil chemical characteristics………………………………..…...7
2.1. Soil acidity…………………………………..………..…….7
2.2. Electrical conductivity……………………..…………….....8
3. Soil fertility……………………………………………...………8
3.1. Function of organic matter on soil fertility………….....…...9
3.2. Influence of organic matter on soil physical properties…...10
3.3. Influence of organic matter on soil chemical properties…..10
3.4. Influence of organic matter on soil biological properties…11
3.5. Compost and composting process…………………………12
3.6. Changes in soil chemical properties resulting from organic
and low-input farming practices…………………………..14
3.7. Effect of cattle manure amendment on soil acidity………..15
3.8. Effects of organic manure application on some soil chemical
properties …………… …………………………….…....16
4. Effects of rice straw compost application on the growth and yield
of rice…………………………….….………………………….17
5. Some characteristics of the growth and yield of rice plant. …...18
5.1. Growth characteristics……………………………………..18
5.2. Leaf area index…………………………………………….19
5.3. Tillering patterns…………………………………………..20
5.4. Photosynthesis and dry-matter production in rice….……..20
5.5. Yield and yield components…………………...……….….21
MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………..…...24
1. Field experiment……………………………………….……….25
1.1. Experimental design…………………………...….…...…..25
1.2. Method of samples analysis.……….…………..………….28
1.2.1. Plant growth analysis……………….…………...….28
1.2.2. Plant agronomic characters……………….…..…….28
1.2.3. Soil properties…………………………….….……..29
1.2.3.1. Soil physical properties……………………30
1.2.3.2. Soil chemical properties…………………...32
2. Plastic house (P-house) experiment………………………...…36
2.1. Experimental design……………………….…….………..36
2.2. Method of samples analysis…...……………………….…38
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………………………40
1. Effects of compost application on some physico-chemical
properties of clay acid soil………………………………....40
1.1. Field experiment……………………………………….….40
1.1.1. Effect of compost application on physical properties
of post-experiment soil ..…………………………..40
1.1.2. Effect of compost application on chemical properties
of post-experiment soil………………………….......45
1.2. P-house experiment……………………………...………..50
1.2.1. Physical properties of pre-experiment soil for pot culture…………….………………………..……50
1.2.2. Effect of compost application on physical properties
of post-experiment soil under P-house condition…...52
1.2.3. Chemical properties of pre-experiment soil for pot
culture……………………………………………….63
1.2.4. Effect of compost application on chemical properties
of post-experiment soil under P-house condition…..67
2. Effects of compost application on the growth and yield of paddy
rice……………………………………………………………...82
2.1. Field experiment……………………………………….….82
2.1.1. Plant height…………………………………………82
2.1.2. Tillering………………………………………...… 85
2.1.3. Leaf area index…………………………..………...88
2.1.4. Chlorophyll content….…………………………….91
2.1.5. Total biomass……………………………..……….93
2.1.6. Yield and yield components ……………………....97
2.2. P-house experiment……………………………………...101
2.2.1. Tillering and plant height……………………..…..101
2.2.2. Total biomass……………………….…………….102
2.2.3. Chlorophyll content…..……………..……………104
2.2.4. Photosynthesis………………………..…………..106
2.2.5. Yield and yield components. …………………….108
CONCLUSION………………………………...………………113
REFERENCES…………………………………………………119
BIOSKETCH OF AUTOR………………………………..…..140
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1. Treatments, and rates of fertilizer application in field
experiment… .………………………………………………27
2. Characteristics of compost and pre-experiment soils used
for field and P-house experiments………………………...43
3. Physical properties of post-experiment soil with different rates
of compost and fertilizer applications (field experiment)….44
4. Chemical properties of post-experiment soil with different rates of compost and fertilizer application (field experiment)…………………………………………………49
5. Physical properties of pre-experiment potted soil
(P-house experiment)……………………………………….51
6. Physical properties of post-experiment potted soil
(P-house experiment)……………………………………….57
7. Bulk density of pre- and post-experiment soil under wet
condition……………………………………………………58
Table Page
8. Bulk density of pre- and post-experiment soil under dry
condition………………………………..……………...……59
9. Particle density of pre- and post-experiments soil under
dry soil condition …………………………………………...60
10. Total porosity of pre- and post-experiment soils under
wet soil condition ……………………………………...…..61
11. Moisture content of pre- and post-experiment soils…..……62
12. Chemical properties of pre-experiment potted soil
(P-house experiment)………………………………………66
13. Chemical properties of post-experiment potted soil
(P-house experiment)……………………………………….73
14. pH values of pre- and post-experiment soils.……………….74
15. Electrical conductivity of pre- and post-experiment soils…..75
16. Total nitrogen content of pre- and post-experiment soils…..76
17. Organic carbon content of pre- and post-experiment soils....77
18. Organic matter content of pre- and post-experiment soils….78
19. Phosphorus concentration of pre- and post-experiment soils.79
Table Page
20. Potassium content of pre- and post-experiment soils……….80
21. Sodium concentration of pre- and post-experiment soils…...81
22. Effect of compost application on the plant height of paddy
rice at various growth stages (field experiment)…………...84
23. Effect of compost application on the tillers number at
different growth stages of paddy rice (field experiment)…....87
24. Effect of compost on the leaf area index at various growth
stages of paddy rice (field experiment)…………...……….. 90
25. Response of compost on the leaf chlorophyll content at
72 DAT of paddy rice in field experiment………………….92
26. Effect of Compost on Yield components and yield of paddy
rice (field experiment)…………………………………….100
27. Response of compost on the growth and agronomic characters
paddy rice at harvest (P-house experiment)……………….103
28. Response of compost on flag leaf chlorophyll content at
various growth stages, P-house experiment……………….105
Table Page
29. Oxygen evolution of flag leave at 72 DAT
(P-house experiment)………………………………….…...107
30. Compost responses on yield components and yield of paddy
rice (P- house experiment)………………………….…....112
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1. Effects of Different treatments on paddy rice plant height at
various growth stages (field experiment).………...………….83
2. Effect of different treatments on paddy rice panicle weight
at various growth stages (Dry weight basis) (field experiment.95
3. Effects of different treatments on paddy rice total biomass at
different growth stages (Dry matter basis) (field experiment). 96

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