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研究生:FafandingS.Fatajo
研究生(外文):Fafanding S. Fatajo
論文名稱:農產品行銷通路管理-以甘比亞番茄生產為例
論文名稱(外文):Marketing Channel Management of Agricultural Produces with Reference to Tomato in The Gambia
指導教授:洪仁杰洪仁杰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rern-Jay Hung Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:農會調查行銷通路管理番茄地區
外文關鍵詞:Farmers’ AssociationsSurveyMarketing Channel ManagementTomatoDivisions
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本研究旨在藉由四個甘比亞園藝品農會的實地調查,探討行銷通路管理之相關因素。本研究所蒐集之初級資料為甘比亞首次所獲取有關行銷通路相關研究之資料。
所有受訪者均為女性,並依其對行銷通路相關因素之態度分成不同集群。本研究共萃取五個特徵值大於1的因素,不同受訪者集群在五個因素上均呈現顯著差異。在受訪者教育程度方面,僅少部份生產者能達到六年之國民教育。而在受訪者平均年齡方面,則均在壯年。番茄之獲利性相對於其他作物無顯著差異。在此二地區(KSD,WD)之受訪者中,對生銷通路管理之態度並無顯著差異。同一個農會生產者並未進行共同運銷及共同採購。甘比亞之園藝產品係由年輕及中年婦女主導整個產銷活動。在銷售方面,生產之後直接到市集銷售給消費者是最常使用的通路,而生產者則是價格接受者。以甘比亞目前現狀來看,行銷通路似乎難以整合,政府應在此方面多加以努力。市場攤位收費管理人員不專業的態度,經常為農民所垢病。生產者幾乎都需要等待相常長的時間,才能找到交通工具將其生產作物運送到市集,而此造成農民相當的損失。

Four women communal gardens/farmers’ associations were surveyed in the urban and peri-urban areas in The Gambia so as to uncover the factors related to marketing channel management in the research domain. We have collected exclusively primary data related to marketing channel management in the country.
The clusters exhibit different original marketing attitudes towards marketing channel management. Five common factors were extracted and each factor has an eigenvalue of more than one. Generally speaking, there was no significant difference among clusters with reference to given factors. Insignificant percentage of producers achieved 6 years of primary education. Mean age of the producers was within the productive age in the country. There was no significant difference for profitability between tomato and alternative crops. Respondents from the two divisions (KSD and WD) were not significantly different in their attitudes toward marketing channel management. There was no significant relationship among producers in the same farmers’ association for joint marketing and purchasing. Women young to middle aged dominate the horticultural sub-sector in The Gambia. Frequently used channel was directly marketing, and the producers were price takers. It was not feasible for the channel to integrate, at least for now in the country, and the government in any case could not be left out of the race. Unprofessional attitudes of the daily revenue (daily tax) collectors were the matter of great concern to producers and marketers. Producers were always frustrated and disappointed to wait for long hours before they could transport their produces to the market, which always leads to a significant loss of the produces.

ABSTRACT (ENGLISH)……………………………………..………..…VI
ABSTRACT (CHINESE)…….…….………..….……………...………….VIII
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…..………..………………………….………...IX
LIST OF TABLES…..………………………………….…………………..XV
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS………………………………………...…..XVII
I. INTRODUCTION……………….………………….…..………………...1
1.1 Background and Motivation……………...………….……………..1
1.2 Objectives of the Research……………………………….……...…9
1.3 Flow Chart of the Research…………………………..……...……10
II. LITERATURE REVIEW………….……………………….………..…12
(2.1) Definition of Marketing…….…………………………………...12
(2.2) Experiences and Some Cost Implications of Marketing………...15
(2.3) Role of Marketing in the Economy………………………...……19
(2.4) Cooperative Marketing……………………..………………..….23
(2.5) A Brief Introduction of Taiwan Tomato Industry………………27
(2.6) Guaranteed Price System………..……………………..………..28
(2.7) Marketing Channel……………………………………………...29
(2.8) Establishing Marketing Channel Objective……...…………...…33
(2.9) Marketing Channel Management…………………….………….35
(2.10) Marketing Channel Selection………………………………..…36
(2.11) Factors Influencing Selection of Channel Members….………..38
(2.12) Channel Leadership and Management…………………………40
(2.13) Farmers’ Organizations and Agricultural
Development……………………………………….…………...52
(2.14) Farmers’ Organizations Hold the Key to Agricultural
Marketing.……………………………………………………...57
III. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………….……....69
(3.1) Questionnaire Design………………….………………………...70
(3.2) Survey Design…………………………………………………...72
(3.3) Questionnaire Administration…………….…………………..…74
(3.4) Data Analysis Methods……………………..…………………...75
(3.5) Hypothesis………………………..……………………………..77 (3.6) Research Limitations……….………………………………...…81
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………………...……………..82
(4.1) Basic Properties of Samples Central to Our Research………..…84
(4.2) Descriptive Statistics of Variables Central to our
Analysis……………………………………………………….…86
(4.3) Eigenvalue of the Correlation Matrix Initial Factor
Method: Principal Components Analysis……………………….88
(4.4) Cluster Analysis of the Original Respondents Grouping……..…91
(4.5) Factor Analysis/Item to Total Cronbach’s Alpha Analysis……..94
(4.6) Given Factors Associated with the Types of Respondents…..…98
(4.7) Demographic Characteristics Associated with Given Factors…102
(4.8) Correlation Between Profitability of Tomato and the
Given Factors………………………………………………..…110
(4.9) Characteristics Associated with Respondents….………………114
(4.10) MANOVA/ Scheffe Test Criteria and Exact F Statistics
for the Hypothesis of no Overall Cooperative Marketing
and Purchasing Effect……………..………………………….117
(4.11) Gender Distribution of Respondents ……………………...….130
(4.12) Channels used for Marketing of Tomato in The Gambia…….134
(4.13) Integration of Marketing Channels in The Gambia…………..139
(4.14) Pricing Strategies of the Marketing Channels in The
Gambia……………………………………………....……..…143
(4.15) Major limitations of marketing Horticultural Produce
in The Gambia………………………..………………….……147
(4.16) Transportation of Produce to the Market in The
Gambia……………………………………………....………..154
V. CONCLUSIONS….……………………………….…………………...157
VI. RECOMMENDATIONS………….…………………………..……...161
VII. REFERENCES…………………………………………………..…164
VIII. APPENDICES……………………………………….………….….176
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1. Number and Locations of PMTs, Including Sample Size…………….……74
2. Basic Properties of Samples Central to our Research……………………..85
3. Descriptive Statistics of Variables Central to our Analysis………………..87
4. Eigenvalue of the Correlation Matrix Initial Factor Method:
Principal Components Analysis…………………………………………….90
5. Results of Cluster Analysis of the Original Respondents Grouping……….93
6. Item to Total Correlation and Cronbach’s Alpha Analysis……………...…97
7. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and F Approximations for the
Hypothesis of no Overall Cluster Effect………………………………….101
8. ANOVA/Duncan’s Multiple Range Test for Farmer’s Association……...108
9. Chi-square (χ2) Statistics for Table of Total Area Under Cultivation
by the Farmers’ Association in Hectare by Cluster……………………...109
10. Matrix of Pearson Profitability of Tomato Compared to Alternative
Crops Correlation Coefficients………………………………………..…113
11. Chi-square (χ2) Statistics for Table of Division by Cluster…………..….115
12. Related t-test Comparing Factors Across the Divisions…………………116
13. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and Exact F Statistics for the Hypo-
thesis of no Overall Cooperative Marketing and Purchasing Effect……..128
14. Cooperative Marketing (CM) and Purchasing in Percentage…………....129
15. Gender Distribution of Respondents…………………………………….132
16. Age Distribution of Respondents in Year……………………………….133
17. Channel used for Marketing of Tomato in the Research Areas
in Percentage………………..………………………………………..….138
18. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and F Approximations for the
Hypothesis of no Overall Pricing Strategy Effect……………………….145
19. Chronological Development of Smallholder Farmers’ Groups
in Taiwan………………………………………..…………………...…186
20. Main Objectives of PMT and Action…………………………………....187
21. Education Level of Respondents in Percentage…………………………187
22. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and Exact F Statistics for the
Hypothesis of no Overall Division Effect……………………………….188
23. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and F Approximation for
the Hypothesis of no Overall Farmers’ Association Effect……………..188
24. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and F Approximations for
the Hypothesis of no Overall Age Effect……………………………..…189
25. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and F Approximation for
the Hypothesis of no Overall Production Area in ha Effect……………..189
26. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and F Approximation for
the Hypothesis of no Overall Formal Education Effect……………...….190
27. MANOVA/Scheffe Test Criteria and F Approximations for the
Hypothesis of no Overall Target Market Effect………………………....190
28. Volume of production and value of Sales at Banjulinding, Lamin
and Sukuta………………………………………………………..……..191
29. Planting and Harvested Acreages, Yield and Total Value of
Tomato Production in Taiwan, 2000……………………………………..192
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure Page
1. Flowchart of the Research………………………………………………….11
2. Primary Data Analysis Methods………………………………………...….76
3. Coordinated Activities within Marketing Channel………….…………….180
4. Degree of Channel Conflicts…………………………………………...…181
5. Marketing Channels of Tomato in The Gambia…………………………..181
6. Organizational Structure of Farmers’ Association in The Gambia……….182
7. Organizational Structure of Production and Marketing Team in
The Gambia…………………………………………………………….....183
8. Organizational Structure of PMT in Taiwan……………….……………..184
9. Organizational Structure of Township Farmers’ Association in Taiwan…185
10.Research Sites in The Gambia………….……………………………...…194

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