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研究生:陳穗玲
研究生(外文):Sui-ling Chen
論文名稱:我國大學生校園衝突解決途徑影響因素之探討-以高雄市區大學為例
論文名稱(外文):Researches into the effects on conflict solution channels on campuses in Taiwan - with the universities in Kaohsiung , as an example
指導教授:黃賀黃賀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jason H. Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:集體主義衝突處理權威主義關係取向溝通恐懼
外文關鍵詞:Relationship orientationcollectivismauthoritarianism
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
  • 點閱點閱:738
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
「強調和協」以及「以他人為中心」是東方文化的基本特徵。在中國的傳統社會,人們生活圈內的人際交往主要是一種關係取向、情境中心取向的運作型態,亦即以自我為中心,透過彼此關係親疏遠近之判斷,而將交往對象在社會網絡中定位,進而決定合宜的交往行為。基此,在考慮人際衝突之人際行為時,我們不得不考慮此一因素的影響。如若假設人們真會以親疏、尊卑的角度對不同關係對象進行判斷,那麼在面對不同情境或不同互動要求時,某些關係性質將會顯得特別突顯與重要,進而關聯到實際的互動行為。
本研究係以大學校園衝突為研究範圍,試圖瞭解關係取向之行為特質在e世代大學生的人際衝突上是否依然有其主宰性,人際關係的性質又與解決爭議方式有著何種關聯?另外,何友暉等人(1991)在提出「關係取向」的觀點時強調:社會行為最有力的決定因素並不在個體本身,而在個體以外的關係背景。何氏的論點,固然相當程度解釋了中國一般社會行為的特點,但在衝突情境中是否依然適用?因此,本研究試將與衝突處理可能有關的溝通恐懼、權威主義、集體主義等人格特質變項,一併納入探討,以驗證該等人格特質能否預測衝突情境中的社會行為。
本研究採問卷調查方式,共發放問卷720份(中山管理學院、中山理工學院、高師理學院、高醫醫學院各發問卷180份 ),取得有效問卷477份,經由信度分析、描述性統計、單因子變異數分析、獨立樣本t檢定、交叉表等統計分析後,得到重要發現如下:
(一)以「親疏遠近」、「長幼尊卑」界分的平輩親密、平輩疏遠、尊長親密、尊長
疏遠等四種人際關係,對應的主要衝突處理方式確實有顯著差異性。
(二)四種人際構面之衝突處理各有其特性:
1、在平親關係中無論在觀念的衝突或實質的衝突都是高度採取合作的處理
模式。
2、平疏關係仍以合作、妥協為主,但合作的比例較平親關係明顯降低,而妥
協方式則較平親關係為高。
3、在尊親關係中觀念性衝突除採合作方式外,較高比例者願意對師長讓步
,在實質利害衝突上則除合作外,較高比例者願與師長妥協。
4、在尊疏衝突上甚至比尊親衝突更願意以合作方式處理衝突,其中觀念衝突
合作比例尤高於實質衝突。
(三)四種人際關係對應的衝突處理方式有顯著性差異,足以驗證在衝突情境之人
際關係判斷,人們的思考應該不僅只是宏觀的關係分類,而是把自己與對方
所累積的各種既定聯繫加以通盤考量。
(四)過去傳統中國社會以統合取向來化解衝突,往往局限於「群我團體」內,但
由本研究發現,在四種人際關係上均有相當比例(至少三成以上)傾向採合
作方式處理,顯示今日大學生似已較願意與任何他人以顧及彼此關係又保全

自身權益的合作方式解決衝突問題。
(五)許烺光(1971)認為中國人之人際關係重視人倫的義務情感,多於重視親密
自發的情感,此論點在本研究之衝突情境已無法得到驗證。
(六)與關係疏遠者發生衝突時比親密關係間有較高比例採逃避方式因應。此研究
結果與周丁浦生(1984)的觀點頗為一致。
(七)在衝突情境下,即使是在非親密關係的人際間,學生仍願以合作方式處理
,或為避免正面衝突而以逃避方式因應,而非採取抗爭方式爭取個人最大利
益。似乎黃光國(1988)的人情與面子理論模式在衝突情境上有其限制。
(八)本研究透過描述性統計分析及交叉表卡方檢定發現,無論是溝通恐懼、集體
主義或權威主義在人際關係與衝突處理方式上均不具調節效果。此研究結果
似乎支持了何友暉等人(1991)的論點,面對衝突處理的社會行為,彼此關
係背景的影響大於個人的性格反應。
(九)不同學校、院系之間,對衝突的處理方式之比較。
1、中山管理學院之學生溝通恐懼與權威主義均明顯低於中山理工學院,且在
四種人際關係衝突上均明顯較中山理工學院合作,而中山理工則表現出較
高的忍讓與抗爭反應。
2、中山理工學院與高師理學院學生,不但在溝通恐懼、集體主義、權威主義
等特質上無差異性,且在面對衝突採取因應方式上亦無明顯差異。
3、中山理工與高醫醫學院學生,在溝通恐懼、集體主義、權威主義等特質雖
無明顯差異性,但在衝突處理方式上高醫醫學院學生的合作傾向則明顯
高於中山理工。
4、高師理學院與高醫醫學院學生,在溝通恐懼、集體主義、權威主義等特質
上亦無明顯差異性,而在衝突處理方式上高醫醫學院學生的合作傾向同
樣明顯高於高師理工。
(十)個人屬性與衝突處理方式之比較
1、在性別特質,男性之權威主義明顯高於女性。在衝突處理方式上則女性於
平親關係實質性衝突的合作顯著高於男性,而男性在平親關係上則有普遍
較高的忍讓、逃避或抗爭反應。
2、高低年級學生,在溝通恐懼、集體主義、權威主義等特質上無明顯差異
,且在衝突處理方式上亦無系統性的區別。
The basic characteristics of eastern culture are harmony-emphasized and other-people-centered. In Chinese traditional society, the social contact within life circles is mainly in an operating mode orienting towards relationship and situations; in other words, people are self-centered, making a judgment based on their familiarity with associating subjects, and then orientate them in the society network to further decide a proper associating behavior. On the basis of the reason, we have to take account of this effect when thinking over the social behaviors of social conflicts. Supposed that people do judge their subjects based on familiarity and seniority, the properties of certain relationship will appear to be specially outstanding and important and further relate to the actual interaction when facing different situations and diverse interacting demands.
This range of study is the conflicts on campus, and we seek to understand whether the characteristics of relationship orientation still dominate social conflicts of undergraduates of E-generation, and what kinds of connection are between the properties of relationship and the manners of conflict solution. Besides, HO, Yu-hui and his fellows (1991) put forth the viewpoint of “Relationship Orientation, ” and he emphasized: The most powerful determinant does not lie in individuals themselves, but in the relative background outside the individuals. To some extent, HO’s argument explains the particulars of general Chinese social behaviors, but does it remain applicable in conflict situations? Therefore, this research tries to bring into study the variables of personality characteristics, such as fear of communication, authoritarianism, collectivism, etc., which may relate to conflict handling, and to verify if these characteristics are able to forecast the social behaviors in conflict situations.
The survey is proceeded with questionnaires. The total questionnaires sent out are 720 copies, and effective questionnaires are 477 copies.(Sent out 180 copies respectively to College of Administration, and College of Science & Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Science College in Kaohsiung Teacher’s University, and Medical College, Kaohsiung Medical University.) After reliability analysis, descriptive statistics, uni-factor variance analysis, sample test for independence, and cross hatched map are completed, the important discoveries are as follows:
1. Four kinds of relationship─contemporary familiarity, contemporary unfamiliarity, senior familiarity, and senior unfamiliarity─are defined according to familiarity and seniority. And there are strikingly differences in their corresponding manners of conflict solution.
2. The four kinds of conflict handling have their characteristics respectively:
1) In the relationship of contemporary familiarity, highly cooperative modes are adopted to handle both conceptual and actual conflicts.
2) The relationship of contemporary unfamiliarity still gives the first place to cooperation and compromise; however, its cooperative percentage is much lower than contemporary familiarity, and its compromising manners are higher than contemporary familiarity.
3) In the relationship of senior familiarity, higher percentage of people are willing to make a concession to their seniors in the respects of conceptual conflicts, besides adopting the cooperative manner, and higher percentage of people are willing to compromise with their seniors in the respects of actual conflicts of interests, besides cooperation.
4) People have higher volition to handle their conflicts in a cooperative manner with unfamiliar seniors than with familiar seniors, and the cooperative percentage in conceptual conflicts is especially higher than that in actual conflicts.
3. The corresponding conflict handling manners of the four kinds of relationship are remarkably different, and this is sufficient to verify the judgment of relationship in conflict situations, and that people’s thinking is not only a macroscopic classification of relationship, but also comprehensive consideration of established relationship both parties have accumulated.
4. In the past, Chinese society tended to reconcile conflicts with integration orientation and always confined to “Group-I groups.” But this research indicates that the four kinds of relationship, to some extent, have a percentage of people (30% at lowest) inclined to handle conflicts in a cooperative manner. And this tells us that today undergraduates seem more willing to solve conflicts with other people in a cooperative way, which gives consideration to mutual relationship and saves their own rights and interests form damage.
5.HSU, Lang-kuang (1971) thought that Chinese relationship put more emphasis on obligatory emotions of human relations than on familiar and spontaneous emotions. This contention cannot be tested and verified in the conflict situations of this research.
6.When conflicts come up, the percentage of escaping from conflicts is higher in people who are not mutually familiar than in those who are familiar with each other. This research result fairly agrees with the viewpoint of CHOU TING, Pu-sheng (1984).
7.In conflict situations, students are still willing to handle it in a cooperative way, or to escape to avoid frontal conflict, even though they are not unfamiliar, instead of resisting to strive for personal interests. It seems that HUANG, Kuang-kuo’s theoretical mode of human sympathy and face has its limit in conflict situations.
8.This research discovers, by descriptive statistic analysis and examination of cross cards, that fear of communication, collectivism or authoritarianism do not have effect of adjustment in human relationship and the way of conflict handling. This result of research seems to support the contention of HO, Yu-hui, etc. (1991) that the effect of background of mutual relationship is greater than the response of personal character in the social behavior of facing conflict handling.
9. Comparison of the ways of conflict handling among different schools, colleges and departments
(1)Fear of communication and authoritarianism of students in the College of Administration, National Sun Yat-Sen University are obviously lower than the College of Science & Engineering of the same university, and more cooperative in the conflict of four relationships than the College of Science & Engineering. However, the College of Science & Engineering shows higher responses of forbearance, conciliation and resistance.
(2)Students in the College of Science & Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University and the College of Science, Kaohsiung Teacher’s University not only have no differences in the characteristics of fear of communication, collectivism and authoritarianism, but also have no obvious differences in the way to face conflict.
(3)Students in the College of Science & Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University and the Medical College, Kaohsiung Medical University also have no obvious differences in the characteristics of fear of communication, collectivism and authoritarianism. However, the tendency of cooperation of students in the Medical College, Kaohsiung Medical University in the way of conflict handling is obviously higher than the College of Science & Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University.
(4)Students in the College of Science, Kaohsiung Teacher’s University and the Medical College, Kaohsiung Medical University also have no obvious differences in the characteristics of fear of communication, collectivism and authoritarianism. However, the tendency of cooperation of students in the Medical College, Kaohsiung Medical University in the way of conflict handling is obviously higher than College of Science, Kaohsiung Teacher’s University as well.
10.Comparison between personal attributes and the ways of conflict handling
(1)In the gender, the authoritarianism of males is obviously higher than that of females. In the ways of conflict handling, the cooperation of females in actual conflicts with familiar contemporaries is obviously higher than that of males, and males have generally higher responses of forbearance, escape and resistance toward their familiar contemporaries.
(2)Students of high and low grades have no obvious difference in the characteristics of fear of communication, collectivism and authoritarianism and also have no systematic difference in the ways of conflict handling.
目 錄
第一章 緒論 …………………………………………………………1
第一節研究動機 ……………………………………………………1
第二節研究目的 ……………………………………………………4
第三節研究流程 ……………………………………………………5
第二章文獻探討 ……………………………………………………6
第一節 華人社會人際關係的基模 …………………………………6
第二節 集體主義與衝突因應的關連……………………………… 14
第三節 威權主義的檢討…………………………………………… 17
第四節 溝通恐懼之意義及相關研究的探討 ………………………20
第五節 衝突處理方式之研究 …………………………………… 26
第三章 研究方法 ……………………………………………………45
第一節 研究架構與研究假設 …………………………………… 45
第二節 研究變項的操作性定義與衡量 ………………………… 48
第三節 資料蒐集方法與樣本特性分析 ………………………… 57
第四節 資料處理與分析方法 ……………………………………59
第五節 研究限制 ……………………………………………………60
第四章 資料分析與討論 ……………………………………………61
第一節 資料描述分析 ……………………………………………61
第二節 溝通恐懼、集體主義、權威主義與衝突處理方式之關係 65
第三節 四種人際構面及高低溝通恐懼、集體主義、權威主義與
高低年級、不同性別、學校院系之衝突反應差異比較 …69
第五章 討論與建議 ……………………………………………………85
第一節結論 …………………………………………………………85
第二節建議 …………………………………………………………90
參考文獻 …………………………………………………………………93
附錄問卷 ………………………………………………………………100
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