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研究生:賴碧蘭
研究生(外文):Candy Lai
論文名稱:行政機關女性主管生涯發展策略及相關因素之研究─以兩性工作平等觀點
論文名稱(外文):Research on career development policies and factors related for women officials in administrative organizations --- basing on men and women to work equal.
指導教授:黃英忠黃英忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ing-Chung Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:227
中文關鍵詞:人格特質性別角色角色衝突兩性工作平等生涯發展生涯發展策略
外文關鍵詞:role conflictSex role-playingcareer developmentpersonal dispositioncareer development policymen and women to work equal.
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中文摘要
我國憲法明定男女平等及人民之工作權應予保障,國際勞工公約更將兩性工作平等權列為基本人權,但基於種種因素,目前兩性工作關係未臻理想。依據行政院主計處統計資料顯示,私經濟部門包含管理及經理人員女性人數比率僅佔13.6%,即使在政府機關包含政務官、民選機關首長及簡任公職人員之女性人數比率,亦僅為11.8%;在工作報酬上,台灣的女性勞工薪資則始終儘及男性薪資的73%。在現實就業情境中,一方面受限於社會結構、傳統的文化價值觀及性別角色刻板印象的影響,另一方面又受限於家庭角色的干擾因素,莫不對職業女性產生莫大的壓力而影響其生涯發展至鉅。
研究者係現職公務人員,在多年的工作經驗中,深深體會出,舊有社會文化價值觀下,女性在其職涯發展過程中的困境、障礙與抉擇,可能阻礙了其追求自我實現與成就的機會。鑑於女性在未來國家人力運用上,扮演日益重要的角色,且隨著女性教育水準的提昇,在政府機關女性公務人員所佔比例,有逐年增加的趨勢,因此透過行政機關女性主管的前鋒典範在兩性工作無法達到實質平等的大環境下,探討其個人特質,性別角色及角色壓力等因素之下,個人如何克服障礙及其在生涯發展歷程中採用何種生涯發展策略,得以出類拔萃而功成名就。
本研究採用質性研究法中的個案訪談為蒐集資料的主要方法,訪談的研究對象為行政機關編制內,經國家考試及格之女性中、高階主管四人,年齡介於三十五至五十歲之間,且均具有十四年以上的公職資歷。訪談所得資料,騰寫為逐字稿之後,經歸類、建立主題,並賦予解釋、比較與分析,並摘要或擷取出受訪者直接陳述的話語或精華部分,作為本研究提出論點之佐證,最後呈現出研究結果。本研究經整理發現如下:
壹、在性別角色方面
一、傳統社會價值觀影響其性別角色態度:傳統社會價值觀深植人心,女性仍需負較大部分的家務及教養責任,即使在職場上取得一席之地的現代化女性,亦不免因對工作投注過多心力,疏於對家庭的照顧而心生愧疚。
二、生涯選擇與評估,仍以安定為主:除受學校科系領域、同儕或楷模等影響外,主要亦謀求較安定的工作以兼顧家庭生活。
三、性別角色刻板印象影響其職涯之發展性:家庭角色的干擾因素、職場上的考評歧視、升遷歧視及不適任管理職觀念等皆影響其職涯的發展。
四、性別角色的特質影響其生涯之發展:行政機關女性主管大都趨向兩性化的性別角色特質,剛柔並濟且較具彈性,可視情境的需要,表現出男性或女性的角色特質,造就成功的生涯發展。
貳、在角色衝突方面
一、傳統社會價值觀念,衍生角色之衝突並影響其生涯進展。
二、角色衝突越低,對職涯之發展愈具正面影響。
參、在人格特質方面
一、愈傾向內控人格特質之女性,職涯成功的比例愈高:愈傾向內控人格特質之女性,較敢於接受挑戰,也勇於負起責任,導致較佳的績效,因此職涯成功的比例愈高。
二、受傳統社會價值觀影響愈小,愈有較高的成就動機,且擔任中、高階主管的比例愈高。
肆、女性職涯發展成功的策略性因素
一、努力尋求家人的支持與協助:尋求有效的支持系統,以因應紓解壓力,減輕牽絆是邁向事業成就的一大助力。
二、創造機會競爭優勢:如「組織的層級結構機會」、「增加磨練機會」與「爭取充實與進修機會」,以及「評量處境造就情勢」與「化阻力為助力」之機會策略等,以追求職涯更大的進展與突破。
三、努力投入:在工作上全力投入的行為、態度與信念,係職場上獲致成功應具備的最基本策略。
四、迎合上司與意見一致:任事上高度的配合,惟策略之應用,須拿捏得當,避免造成負面影響。
五、適時自我推銷─毛遂自薦策略。
六、尋求良師指導:如能尋得對個人有助益的良師,獲得其賞識與指導,當有晉昇機會時,適時地推薦與提拔,更可避免一些不必要的迂迴與阻礙,對職涯之進展更具有加速之效果。
七、建立人際網絡關係:主動積極參與、拓展人脈,建構良好的資訊網絡,藉由關係網絡的運作,在職涯的發展上當有較高的成功機會。
關鍵詞:性別角色、角色衝突、人格特質、生涯發展、生涯發展策略、兩性工作平等.
Abstract
Men and women are born in equal according to our constitution. The right of work for people shall be protected, and basic human rights for men and women are equal according to International Labor Code. However, basing on varied factors, currently the work relationship between men and women is not ideal. Subject to the data statistical records from Directorate-General of Budgets, Account & Statistics, Executive Yuan, the rate share for women manager and administrator in private organizations is only 13.6%. Even in the governmental organization, chief director selected by people and recommended women officials is also only 11.89%. The wage for women in Taiwan is always shared 73% of the men’s. In the environment of practical situation, women are often restricted and affected by social structure, traditional culture value, and dull role-playing. On the other hand, they are often restrained and interfered by acting for different family roles. Those factors bring much pressure for women and their careers are greatly influenced.
The researcher of this study is to serve in the governmental organization now. In so many years of working experience, she realizes deeply about the difficulties, obstacle, and decision for women unable to self-implement for achievement in the process of development under old social culture value. As viewing that women play important role gradually for national labor application in the future, and following the upgrade educational standard for women, the rate share for officials in governmental organization is increased year by year. Therefore, through pioneer model of female officials in the administrative organization, who are unable to reach for an equal treatment, this study is to research on personal disposition, sex role-playing, and pressure on role-playing, etc. factors. The successful result of personal presentation on how to overcome the obstacles and which kind of career policies adopted in the process of development are studied.
In this study adopts individual interview, and the objects under this visiting are to serve in the administrative organization, including 4 higher/intermediate division women qualified by our national high-class examination, and aged from 35 to 50 years old to have more than 4 years of service span. The information collected is written by words, and after text classification and management, we build a title specified with explanation. Under comparison and analysis, the words told by the object will be directly narrated to prove our points of this study. Finally, the results are concluded below:
一、In the aspect on sex role-playing
(一)Traditional social value affected to attitude for sex role-playing: in the traditional social value, women must take most of the duties to the household affairs and child raising. Even the modern women who have career feel guilty on care less for family members resulting from over devoted themselves to the work.
(二)Choosing stable work for themselves under assessment: except being affected by school domain, colleague, or models, etc. women look for stable work to let them can take care of family members and work simultaneously.
(三)Dull sex role-playing affected to their career development: for the factors of family role-playing, discrimination on sex for career and promotion, and not suitable for management, etc., women are restricted for career development.
(四)Sex role-playing and personal disposition affected to their career development: Most of the female officials in the administrative organization are trend to have personal disposition on both men and women with flexible space to meet the demand of actual condition. Women who have such kind of disposition are successful on career development.
二、In the aspect of role conflicts
(一)Traditional social value affected to their role conflicts and career progress.
(二)Lower the role conflict, positive influence on career development.
三、In the aspect of personal disposition
(一)Women with disposition of inner self-control get higher successful on career: As women who have inner self-control dare to receive challenge and take responsibility for better achievement. Therefore, they have high rate for successful on career.
(二)Smaller influenced by traditional culture value, they have higher motive to achieve the successful. Besides, the rate is higher to act as senior officials in the intermediate and higher division.
四、Successful policy factors for women career
(一)Looking for support and assistance from their family members: Looking for effective support system to cope with pressure, their career will be successful without burdens.
(二)Creating opportunity for competition priority: like to use the policies with “organizational level and structure opportunity” “increasing on training opportunity”, “striving for professional enrichment and in-service study opportunity”, “assessment on situation priority”, and “letting resistance turn into assistance”, etc. to breakthrough for greater progress on career.
(三)Devoted themselves to the work with great efforts: being fully devoted to the work with progressive attitude and good faith, and this is the basic policy to win for a success.
(四)Having the opinion same as senior officers: Good coordination with senior officers, and appropriate application of the policy to avoid creating negative influence.
(五)Self-selling at appropriate time: self recommendation policy.
(六)Seeking for instruction from good instructor: A good instructor can appreciate your talent and will give instruction to you at appropriate time, and a timing recommendation as well as promotion helps greatly to the development of career without obstacles.
(七)Establishing the human network relations: Participating progressively and actively to expand human relations and set-up good information network. By means of the operation on human network, the development of career will be successful more easily.
Key words:
Sex role-playing, role conflict, personal disposition, career development, career development policy, men and women to work equal
目   錄
第一章緒論
第一節研究背景………….……………………………………………1
第二節研究動機…………………………..………………………….10
第三節研究目的………………………………..…………………….12
第二章文獻探討
第一節兩性工作平等就業歧視理論…………………..…………….13
第二節傳統社會價值觀……………………………..……………….23
第三節人格特質………………………………………..…………….42
第四節生涯發展策略…………………………………..…………….55
第三章研究方法
第一節研究架構……………………...………………………………72
第二節研究範圍與對象………………………..…………………….74
第三節研究工具……………………………………………...………76
第四節研究限制……………………………………………...………79
第四章資料歸納與分析結果
第一節性別角色與生涯發展之相關性分析………………………. .81
第二節角色衝突與生涯發展之影響性分析……………………….. 94
第三節人格特質與生涯發展之結果分析……………………….. ..102
第四節生涯發展成功策略結果分析……………………………….106
第五章結論與建議
第一節結論………………………………………………………… 124
第二節建議………………………………………………………….132
第三節後續研究建議……………………………………………….145
參考書目
一、中文部分……………………………………………………………..…147
二、英文部分……………………………………………………………..…153
附 錄
一、訪談邀請函……………………………………………………………...163
二、訪談問題大綱…………………………………………………………..164
三、訪談逐字稿……………………………………………………………..166
表 目 錄
表1-1 世界主要國家對於兩性平等就業政策之法制規範內容…..…. 2
表1-2 女性就業與人力資源分析……………………………...……….7
表1-3 歷年公務人員高普考錄取人員性別統計………………………8
表2-1 女性主義學派關於性別歧視之觀點比較表…………………..19
表2-2 性別角色定義相關文獻…………………….………………….25
表2-3 人格特質定義相關文獻………………………………………..43
表2-4 內外控取向相關理論與研究…………………………………..45
表2-5 成就動機定義相關文獻………………………………………..48
表3-1 受訪者名單及基本資料………………………………………..75
圖 目 錄
圖2-1 Weiner的歸因型態…………………………………………. 51
圖2-2 成功的生涯發展模式………………………………………….57
圖2-3 生涯發展的階段………………………………….……………58
圖3-1 研究架構……………………………………………….………73
圖3-2 研究程序圖…………………………………….………………78
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