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研究生:羅永青
研究生(外文):Yung-ching Lo
論文名稱:後冷戰時期中共的環境外交-以聯合國氣候變化綱要公約的參與為例
論文名稱(外文):PRC Environmental Diplomacy in the Post Cold-War Era:Participation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
指導教授:冷則剛冷則剛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tse-kang Leng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:大陸研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:209
中文關鍵詞:國際建制理論聯合國氣候變化綱要公約京都議定書環境外交中共
外文關鍵詞:international regime theoryenvironmental diplomacyUN Framework Convention on Climate ChangePRCKyoto Protocol
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:19
  • 點閱點閱:684
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:195
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:5
摘要
隨著生態惡化的加劇,全球環境問題對於人類生存的威脅逐漸提高,並造成冷戰後環境外交與全球環境政治的興起。中共擁有廣闊的領土、眾多的人口、和豐富的自然資源,但在二十年來的現代化過程中,卻形成嚴重的環境危機。自1989年開始,由於國內外的壓力,迫使其加強對於國際環保活動的關注及參與。本研究即在藉由探討中共在『聯合國氣候變化公約』中的參與以了解其後冷戰時期環境外交的發展,並企圖兼顧國際與國內層面,採用國際建制、官僚結構、和科學社群等理論概念來觀察、解析中共在此方面的行動。茲略述結果如下:
1.中共在參與國際環保建制時,藉由秉持保護主權、南北衝突、及已開發國家在國際環保問題上負有主要責任的原則,來達成獲取資金和技術援助、強化國內環保工作、確保經濟利益、改善國際形象、及擴大國際影響等目標。
2.中共關於參與『公約』的政治決策主要源於各部會間的角力,並非是單純地理性選擇或科學計算,而是相對利益之間力量和技巧爭奪的結果。在『公約』對於中共國內決策的影響方面,在國內科學社群間有一定程度的影響力,但此種影響並未能清楚地顯現在最終的政治決策中。
3.中共雖惟恐國際環保建制會侵犯主權和打壓其發展潛力,但它並不是單純地反對或違反其國際義務。進一步地,卻開始著手長期的計劃,並利用商業利益為誘因,吸引資金和技術,用以強化其本身的環保工作。
Abstract
As ecological deterioration getting worse and worse, the degree from global environment problem threat human life is more and more striking, and brings the rise of environmental diplomacy and global environmental politics. The PRC has wide territory, numerous population, and abundant natural resource, however after twenty years of modernizing, result in environment crisis. Since 1989, the PRC being forced to enhance her attention and participation in international environmental protection field by the pressure from domestic and foreign factors. The purpose of this thesis is to realize the details about the development of the PRC environmental diplomacy during the post cold-war era. The author try to combine domestic and international approaches, and use regime theory to analyze the actions of the PRC. The findings as follows:
1. The PRC make their objectives (ex : gain financial and technical assistance, improve the domestic environmental protection ability, modify her international image, etc. ) come true by holding the principles, including secure sovereignty, the unequal responsibilities between developed and developing countries, and developed countries should bare the major responsibilities of global environment problems.
2. The decision-making about the policy guide participation in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change origins from the result of the bargaining between bureaucracies. Besides, climate regime can change the options of environmental and science agencies, but the effect doesn’t show in ultimate decisions.
3. Although the PRC still fear participation in regime will let her sovereignty invaded and economic potential repressed, try to make long-term plans and make capital of foreign firms to improve her environmental protection abilities.
目錄
第壹章緒論------------------------------------------- 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 ----------------------- 1
一、研究動機-------------------------------------- 1
二、研究目的----------------------------------------2
第二節 研究途徑與方法 ------------------------- 3
一、研究途徑 ---------------------------------------3
二、研究方法 ----------------------------------------5
第三節 研究範圍與限制 ----------------------------6
第四節 概念解析 --------------------------------------9
一、環境外交的定義 --------------------------------9
二、全球環境政治 -----------------------------------12
第五節 章節安排 --------------------------------------15
第貳章國際合作與『聯合國候變化綱要公約』-理論和背景--16
第一節 新現實、新自由主義與全球環境政治 ---------19
一、新現實主義--------------------------------------------19
二、新自由主義--------------------------------------------22
三、新現實和新自由主義對於全球環境政治的看法 ---------26
第二節 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約的緣起與發展-----------------30
一、溫室效應與氣候變化 -----------------------------------------30
二、人類的回應 -----------------------------------------------------32
三、聯合國氣候變化綱要公約的提出 -------------------------33
四、京都議定書的提出 -------------------------------------------36
五、氣候變化議題的困境-----------------------------------------38
六、各主要國家集團 ---------------------------------------------41
第三節 國際建制理論 --------------------------------------------46
一、建制的定義 ---------------------------------------------------47
二、建制的形成 ----------------------------------------------------50
三、建制有效性 ----------------------------------------------------55
第參章中共後冷戰時期環境外交的發展與目標 ----------------61
第一節 中共的國內狀況 ------------------------------------------63
一、人口壓力 ------------------------------------------------------63
二、能源狀況 -------------------------------------------------------64
三、生態環境 -------------------------------------------------------73
第二節 中共環境外交的發展 -------------------------------------78
一、發展歷程 --------------------------------------------------------78
二、原 則 --------------------------------------------------------82
三、相關行動 -------------------------------------------------------84
第三節 中共環境外交的目標 -------------------------------------90
一、中共後冷戰時期的外交政策 -------------------------------90
二、中共環境外交的目標 ----------------------------------------92
第四節 中共參與『聯合國氣候變化綱要公約』的國內權力結構---98
第肆章中共在『聯合國氣候變化綱要公約』的參與 ------------111
第一節 從科學倡議到通過『公約』 -------------------------------113
一、科學研究的開展 ------------------------------------------------113
二、中共關於『公約』的談判立場 ----------------------------- 118
第二節 從里約大會到京都會議 ------------------------------------127
一、里約大會 ---------------------------------------------------127
二、第一次締約國會議 ----------------------------------------128
三、第二次締約國會議 ----------------------------------------131
四、京都會議 -----------------------------------------------------132
第三節 從「布宜諾斯艾利斯行動計劃」到「馬拉克什協定」---137
一、第四次締約國會議 -----------------------------------------137
二、第五次締約國會議 -----------------------------------------139
三、第六次締約國會議 -----------------------------------------143
四、第六次締約國第二部分會議 ----------------------------147
五、第七次締約國會議 ------------------------------------------148
第四節 中共參與『聯合國氣候變化綱要公約』的分析-----152
一、基本立場------------------------------------------------------152
二、參與歷程------------------------------------------------------154
三、參與行為的特點與進展 ----------------------------------156
第伍章 結 論 ---------------------------------------------------162
參考書目 -----------------------------------------------------------------172
附錄:『聯合國氣候變化綱要公約』-------------------------------188
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