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研究生:賈山民
研究生(外文):San-Ming Chia
論文名稱:壽山地區台灣獼猴食土行為之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study of geophagy in Formosan macaques, Macaca cyclopis, at Mt. Longevity, Taiwan.
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Minna J. Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:食土行為壽山地區礦物質補給品土壤化學台灣獼猴
外文關鍵詞:GeophagyMineral supplementationMt. LongevityGeochemistryMacaca cyclopis
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臺灣獼猴 ( Macaca cyclopis ),為臺灣之特有種,也是臺灣除了人之外的唯一靈長類動物。本研究為觀察壽山地區台灣獼猴的食土行為,並探討其發生的可能原因。調查及採樣工作開始於89年7月,而於91年4月終止。經野外實地觀察得知壽山地區臺灣獼猴的食土地點分佈至少有35處,約有121個明顯洞穴,其中以H8密度最高(有6處,共13個洞穴),其食土洞穴的密度為1.6 ×103個/平方公里。臺灣獼猴無論年幼及雌雄均有食土行為。臺灣獼猴月平均食土頻率為0.31隻次/時(n=11)。臺灣獼猴的食土行為與生殖季節有關,成年雄猴的食土頻率以九月最高,雌猴的食土行為集中於二至四月。
鋁、鐵、釤三種成分元素含量平均值在食土區樣本與非食土區樣本上具有顯著差異(p<0.05),而鎂、鈣、鉻、錳、銅、砷、鍶、鋇、鑭、鈰、釹、鎰、磷、硫、氯、硝酸氮十六種成分元素含量平均值,皆無顯著差異(p>0.05)。平均鐵 ( Ferric iron ) 含量在食土區為3.6 %高於非食土區的2.6 %,此結果顯示壽山地區臺灣獼猴食用鐵含量較高的土壤,且支持以食土做為體內礦物質補給品的假說。臺灣獼猴所食土壤顏色主要是10YR(47%)、2.5Y (43%) 與7.5YR (10%)。雖鐵含量的平均值在土壤顏色7.5YR時較高(p<0.05),但其在隨機點分布頻度卻最低 ( 5% )。土壤之酸鹼值在食土區、非食土區與隨機點上無顯著差異。臺灣獼猴食用含粘粒較高,而砂粒較低的土壤( p<0.05),其食土組成主要是砂質壤土(47% )及砂質粘壤土( 33% ),其質地分佈與對照組不同。
Soil in the Mt. Longevity, Taiwan, eaten by Formosan macaques, was analyzed to determine the possible stimulus or stimuli for geophagy. I attempted to test the mineral supplementation hypothesis and to document macaques using particle size. I studied macaques soil-eating behavior from July 2000 to April 2002 in the Mt. Longevity, Taiwan, and analyzed soil samples eaten and uneaten by Formosan macaque for physical-chemical properties and geochemistry in the study area. The results show that samples of soil eaten contained relatively high iron ( 3.6% ) and aluminum ( 16.0% ). However, the concentration of samarium was significantly lower in soil from samples eaten than in the random samples. No difference in concentration of the remaining fifteen elements ( magnesium、calcium、 chromium、manganese、copper、arsenic、strontium、barium、lanthanum、cerium、neodymium、ytterbium、phosphorous、sulfate、chlorides ) and Nitrate nitrogen was found between these two groups of soil samples. Geophagy occurred at a high rate of 0.31 monkey per hour with an elevated frequency in the reproduction season. The density of geophagy has been estimated as 1.6×103 individuals per km2 . Frequency of male geophagy were recorded highest in September. Frequency of Females eating soil was recorded mainly between February and April. The ingested soils were significantly richer in clay than control soils. This study supports the hypothesis that mineral supplementation is a major factor for Formosan macaque engaging in geophagy.
目錄
誌謝……………………………………………………………………ii.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………… v.
英文摘要…………………………………………………..……… vi.
表目錄……………………………………………………….………vii.
圖目錄…………………………………………………….…………viii.
前言…………………………………………………………………1
材料與方法…………………………………………………………5
一、實驗地介紹…………………………………………………..5
(一)地質……………………………………………………..5
(二)土壤……………………………………………………..6
(三)氣候條件………………………………………………..7
二、調查方法……………………………………………………..7
三、採樣方法……………………………………………………..8
四、實驗室分析方法……………………………………………..9
(一)土壤質地之測定─機械分析…………………..………9
(二)土壤顏色測定…………………………………….…….10
(三)土壤酸鹼值測定………………………………………..11
(四)土壤成分分析 ( 偶合電漿質譜儀 )………………….11
(五)土壤成分分析(LaMotte STH )……….………….…12
五、資料分析………………………………………………..14
(一)洞穴大小的計算………………………………………..14
(二)食土洞穴密度的計算…………………………………..15
(三)月平均食土頻率…………………………………….…15
(四)統計分析方法…………………………………………..15
結果…………………………………………………………………17
一、野外觀察……………………………………………………..17
二、實驗室分析…………………………………………………..18
(一)土壤顆粒大小及質地分析……………………………..18
(二)土壤顏色………………………………………………..20
(三)酸鹼值…………………………………………………..21
(四)成分元素分析…………………………………………..22
討論…………………………………………………………….…24
結論……………………………………………………………….30
參考文獻………………………………………………………..…32
表一 ~ 九……………………………………………………….…39
圖一 ~ 九……………………………………………………….…50
附錄一 ~ 二..…..……………………………………………….59
圖版一 ~七…………………………………………………..……61
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