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研究生:趙瑞隆
研究生(外文):Jui-Lung Chao
論文名稱:台灣地區蜈蚣目(唇足綱)之修訂
論文名稱(外文):Revision on Scolopendromorpha (Chilopoda) from Taiwan
指導教授:張學文張學文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsueh-Wen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:唇足綱蜈蚣目台灣分類
外文關鍵詞:ScolopendromorphaTaiwanChilopodaTaxonomy
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鑑定自1991起2002止在台灣100個地區收集到的蜈蚣標本316件,全部為5屬,Scolopendra, Rhysida, Otostigmus, Cryptops, Scolopocryptops (過去是 Otocryptops) 16種(亞種)。經比較過去高桑良興(1940)和王友燮(1955-1963)的記錄,並且比對英國自然史博物館(BMNH)、中國科學院動物所(IZCAS)和國立自然科學博物館(NMNS)的標本,發現其中3種是台灣新記錄,分別是:Scolopocryptops capillipedatus (Takakuwa, 1938), Scolopocryptops melanostomus melanostomus Newport, 1845 和 Cryptops japonicus Takakuwa, 1934.,也有先前記錄的6種和2亞種如今並未發現。一個分類地位的修正, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844過去曾經被Kraepelin (1903)視為Scolopendra subspinipes的亞種之一。但事實上,二者之間存在著一些顯著的差異,例如雄性生殖附肢的有無、具棱緣的背板數目和第20步肢是否具跗節刺,因此,應回復其原有獨立種的地位。而Scolopendra subspinipes japonica 可能是Scolopendra multidens 的亞種或地理上變異,因二者間的差異僅在頭板的顏色和胸板的平行縱溝線,但這尚需更進一步驗證。至於Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans可能是S. s. subspinipes的未成年個體,因為二者間僅存在著頭板顏色和體形大小的差異。過去曾記錄的5種和2亞種並未發現,基於個體的測量,我提出Rhysida longipes brevicornis Takakuwa, 1932 應是 Rhysida longipes longipes (Newport, 1845)的異名, Rhysida nuda brevicornuta Wang, 1951應是Rhysida immarginata immarginata (Porat, 1876); 以及Otostigmus insularis Hasse, 1887 、Otostigmus striatus Takakuwa, 1940和 Otostigmus malayanus Chamberlin, 1914應是 Otostigmus scaber Porat, 1876的同種異名。同時,我們並未在台灣發現Otostigmus multispinosus Takakuwa, 1937,而只發現其相似物種Otostigmus aculeatus Haase, 1887,因此O. multispinosus這一物種應是錯誤的鑑定。
Between 1991 and 2002 three hundred and sixteen specimens of scolopendromorphs were collected from 100 sites in Taiwan. In total, 16 species (subspecies) of 5 genera, Scolopendra, Rhysida, Otostigmus, Cryptops, Scolopocryptops (formerly Otocryptops) were found. Three species are new by record to Taiwan, i.e., Scolopocryptops capillipedatus (Takakuwa, 1938), Scolopocryptops melanostomus melanostomus Newport, 1845 and Cryptops japonicus Takakuwa, 1934. A revisionary status, Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, formerly regarded as a subspecies of Scolopendra subspinipes by Kraepelin in 1903, is now a valid species, distinguished by the presence of genital appendages in males, margined tergites, and the presence of a tarsal spine on 20th leg. A new status, Scolopendra subspinipes japonica L. Koch 1878 maybe a subspecies or a geographic variation of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844, because they only differ in the color of head capsule and sternital paramedian sutures. But it must be demonstrated further. In the case of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, it may be a young S. subspinipes subspinipes, because they only differ in the color of head capsule and body size. Five previously recorded species and 2 subspecies were, however, not found on the island during this study. Based on body measurements, it is proposed that Rhysida longipes brevicornis Takakuwa, 1932 = Rhysida longipes longipes (Newport, 1845), Rhysida nuda brevicornuta Wang, 1951 = Rhysida immarginata immarginata (Porat, 1876), and Otostigmus insularis Hasse, 1887 = Otostigmus malayanus Chamberlin, 1914 = Otostigmus scaber Porat, 1876. We did not find any specimens resembling the description of Otostigmus multispinosus Takakuwa, 1937. It could have been misidentified, as the presence of a very similar species Otostigmus aculeatus Haase, 1887 on the island.
CONTENTS
ABSTRACTiv
中文摘要v
ACKNOWLEGEMENTSvi
中文謝辭vi
INTRODUCTION1
Class Chilopoda1
Order Scolopendromorpha2
Morphology2
Systematics3
Historical resume of Scolopendromorpha of Taiwan4
Problems with the taxonomy and phylogeny of Scolopendromorpha of Taiwan5
Object of this work6
MATERIAL and METHODS7
Materials7
Collection7
Methods7
TAXONOMIC ACCOUNTS9
Class Chilopoda9
Order Scolopendromorpha9
Family Scolopendridae11
Subfamily Scolopendrinae11
Genus Scolopendra11
Scolopendra morsitans12
Scolopendra multidens14
Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans15
Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes17
Subfamily Otostigminae18
Genera Otostigmus18
Otostigmus aculeatus19
Otostigmus astenus21
Otostigmus scaber22
Genus Rhysida24
Rhysida immarginata immarginata25
Rhysida longipes longipes27
Family Cryptopidae29
Subfamily Cryptopinae30
Genus Cryptops30
Cryptops japonicus30
Cryptops nigropictus31
Subfamily Scolopocryptopinae32
Genus Scolopocryptops32
Scolopocryptops capillipedatus33
Scolopocryptops curtus34
Scolopocryptops melanostomus melanostomus36
Scolopocryptops rubiginosus36
Scolopocryptops sexspinosus37
LITERATURE CITED40
INDEX TO FIGURES
Fig. 1. A Scolopendromorph of Taiwan45
Fig. 2. A Geophilomorph of Taiwan45
Fig. 3. A Lithobiomorph of Taiwan45
Fig. 4. A Scutigeromorph from Taiwan 45
Fig. 5. The spiracles of Chilopoda46
Fig. 6. The head capsule of Scolopendromorpha46
Fig. 7. The mouthpart of Scolopendromorpha46
Fig. 8. The tergites 18 to 21 of Rhysida longipes47
Fig. 9. The sternites 16 to 21 of Otostigmus aculeatus48
Fig. 10. The pleurites, coxopleurite and coxopleural process48
Fig. 11. The last legs of Scolopendromorpha49
Fig. 12. The last tergite and terminal segment of Scolopendromorpha49
Fig. 13. The characters of family Scolopendridae50
Fig. 14. The spiracle of Scolopendra51
Fig. 15. The claw of leg of Scolopendra s. subspinipes51
Fig. 16. Scolopendra morsitans52
Fig. 17. Scolopendra multidens54
Fig. 18. Scolopendra s. mutilans54
Fig. 19. Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes57
Fig. 20. Spiracles of Otostigmus57
Fig. 21. Otostigmus aculeatus57
Fig. 22. Otostigmus astenus59
Fig. 23. Otostigmus scaber60
Fig. 24. Spiracles of Rhysida62
Fig. 25. Rhysida immarginata immarginata63
Fig. 26. Rhysida longipes longipes64
Fig. 27. The angle of sulci and antennal length of R. l. longipes from Taiwan66
Fig. 28. Scolopocryptopidae67
Fig. 29. Cryptops Miyoshi, 198268
Fig. 30. Cryptops japonicus69
Fig. 31. Cryptops nigropictus69
Fig. 32. Prefemur of end legs of Scolopocryptops melanostoma melanostoma71
Fig. 33. Scolopocryptops capillipedatus 71
Fig. 34. Scolopocryptops curtus73
Fig. 35. Scolopocryptops m. melanostomusa74
Fig. 36. Scolopocryptops rubiginosus75
Fig. 37. Scolopocryptops sexspinosus76
INDEX TO MAPS
Map 1. The sites of collection of Scolopendromorpha in Taiwan78
Map 2. The sites of collection of Scolopendra morsitans in Taiwa 79
Map 3. The sites of collection of Scolopendra multidens in Taiwan80
Map 4. The sites of collection of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans from Taiwan81
Map 5. The sites of collection of Scolopendra subspinipes subspinipes in Taiwan82
Map 6. The sites of collection of Otostigmus acleatus in Taiwan83
Map 7. The sites of collection of Otostigmus astenus in Taiwan84
Map 8. The sites of collection of Otostigmus scaber in Taiwan85
Map 9. The sites of collection of Rhysida immarginata immarginata in Taiwan86
Map 10. The sites of collection of Rhysida longipes longipes from Taiwan87
Map 11. The sites of collection of Cryptops japonicus in Taiwan88
Map 12. The sites of collection of Cryptops nigropictus in Taiwan89
Map 13. The sites of collection of Scolopocryptops capillipedatus in Taiwan90
Map 14. The sites of collection of Scolopocryptops curtus in Taiwan91
Map 15. The sites of collection of Scolopocryptops m. melanostomus in Taiwan92
Map 16. The sites of collection of Scolopocryptops rubiginosus in Taiwan93
Map 17. The sites of collection of Scolopocryptops sexspinosus in Taiwan94
INDEX TO TABLES
Table 1. Faunistical list of Taiwanese scolopendromorpha95
Table 2. In comparison with the list of Takakuwa, Wang and This study97
Table 3. The taxonomic characters of Scolopendra from NSYSUB, NMNS and IZCAS98
Table 4. The comparison of O. multispinosus, O. aculeatus and Taiwanese specimens98
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