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研究生:林怡文
研究生(外文):I-Wen Lin
論文名稱:巴爾托克弦樂四重奏:創作邏輯與技法之研究
論文名稱(外文):The String Quartets of Béla Bartók: A Study of Creative Process and Techniques
指導教授:蔡順美蔡順美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shun-Mei Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:音樂學系研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:弦樂四重奏巴爾托克
外文關鍵詞:String Quartetla Bartók
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中文提要:
弦樂四重奏是自海頓的時代以來極為受到作曲家重視的樂種之一,豐饒的創作數量和漸趨熟煉的內涵在貝多芬的晚期達到了最高的顛峰,但至此之後,鮮少有作曲家在其一生中將創作弦樂四重奏視為絕對必要的課題和堅持,而巴爾托克卻是這少數中的作曲家之一,他一系列共計六首的弦樂四重奏分別在青、壯、老年的歲月中刻劃出巴爾托克創作語彙和心靈上的真實寫照。有鑑於此,本論文即是針對他階段性的作曲特質及運用在弦樂四重奏中的技法與邏輯統一性作為討論的焦點。
本文一共分為四個章節。第一章是整個二十世紀相關背景的探討,新世紀的來臨對於國家的政治、經濟及文化藝術的衝擊與變革產生了全球性的影響力,尤其對於東歐地區,匈牙利這個長期被帝國統治的小國家,在各方面都是處於附庸的狀態,而巴爾托克在國家戰亂不斷的期間對於民謠所萌生的積極態度改變了他一生的作曲信念。因此,在第二章中則是針對他如何將一脈傳統的西方精神與東歐的農民音樂作一融會及整合,同時,再針對巴爾托克之於絃樂器的語法求諸異於傳統的功能地位與表現逐一提出討論。第三章以作品中的邏輯觀和統一性作深入的探討,就其動機、主題、旋律、音程、和聲及配器的相互關聯性為主,爾後再加以歸咎這些關聯性如何形成巴爾托克逝世以來蔚為風潮的黃金分割比例之議題。第四章則為最後的歸納和總結,以及巴爾托克對於日後匈牙利的音樂發展和整個音樂歷史上的貢獻和影響。
巴爾托克的六首弦樂四重奏不僅在二十世紀的弦樂文獻中佔有重要的一席之地,也為貝多芬以來銜接了弦樂四重奏曾經停滯發展的斷層,從他努力將東、西歐的音樂元素結合在一起的理念來看,這一系列的作品既是精華的極緻,亦是他最真誠的自我表述,無論在演奏技巧或是人文精神的實踐,巴爾托克的貢獻都是無庸置疑的。
The string quartet is one of the most important genre since the Classical period, especially beginning with the works of Joseph Haydn. The abundance of quantity and internal proficiency of the string quartet reach its highest point in late period of Beethoven’s work. A few composers treated the string quartets as priority genre in their entire creative life before Bartók composed a series of six string quartets which included his musical thoughts and spiritual progression spreading in the different stages during his lifetime. The purpose of the study is to discuss the various characteristics in every stage creative processes and techniques of Bartók’s string quartets.
The discussion of this thesis consists of four chapters. Chapter one the background of twentieth-century such as global influence of politics, economy, arts activity. During the wars, Bartók concentrated on folk songs that is the most powerful change his career and influenced the way he composed. The discussions of the chapter two include the intergrade and combine folk songs of the Western traditional music and East Europe which occupied his great creative changes, and the differences of traditional string instruments usage. Chapter three elaborates the content of six quartets which is the manipulation of the logical and unity of Bartók’s use of motive, theme, melody, interval, harmony or instrumental usage. Furthermore, a popular topic called golden section is introduced from those integral elements. Chapter four concludeds the study with the discussion of which the composer was under the influence of the music development in Hungary and his contribution to the history of western music.

Not only Bartók’s six string quartets are one of the most important works in twentieth-century string literature, but also they are continuation of Beethoven’s late six string quartets. Bartók devoted himself to musical materials from Western and Eastern Europe. As this point of view, Bartók’s six string quartets are the finest expression of his heart. No matter what composition skills he used or as a humanism, it is no doubt that Béla Bartók made his great contribution in the field of string quartets.
目 錄
序論…………………………………………………………………………………..1
第一章 第二次世界大戰前的當代環境與六首弦樂四重奏之源起…..11
第一節匈牙利政壇下的巴爾托克…………………………………………..12
第二節民謠採集的工作……………………………………………………..16
第三節六首弦樂四重奏之創作背景………………………………………..21
第二章作品取材與音色的構思方法………………………………………..31
第一節 傳統趨向性…………………………………………………………..33
第二節 民謠在弦樂四重奏中的啟發………………………………………..41
第三節 弦樂演奏效果與音色表現…………………………………………..57
第三章 創作技巧之統一邏輯性……………………………………………...67
第一節 動機、音程與主題關聯性之運用…………………………………..68
第二節 巴爾托克在數列運用中的迷思……………………………………..85
第四章 結論………………………………………………………………………96
參考書目………………………………………………………………………….103
參考書目西文書目:Abraham, Gerald. “The Bartók of the Quartets.” Music & Letters (1945): 185-94.Antokoletz, Elliott.The Music of Béla Bartók: A Study of Tonality and Progression in Twentieth Century Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.─────Rhythmic Form in Three of Bartók’s String Quartets. M.M thesis., Hunter College of the City University of New York, 1970.─────Twentieth Century Music. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992.─────Principles of Pitch Organization in Bartók’s Fourth String Quartet.Ph.D diss, New York University, 1975.Austin,William W. Music in the Twentieth Century. New York: Norton, 1966.Babbitt, Milton. “The String Quartets of Batók.” Musical Quarterly 25(1949): 377-85.Bachmann, Tibor & Peter J. “An Analysis of Béla Bartók’s Music through Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Mean. ” Musical Quarterly 65(1979): 72-82.Bartók, Béla. A Memorial Review. New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1950.Berger, Melvin. Guide to Chamber Music. New York: Doubleday Dell Publisging, 1980.Bernard, Jonathan W. “Space and Symmetry in Bartók.” Journal of Music Theory 30(1986): 185-201.Berry, Wallace. “Symmetrical Intervals Sets and Derivative Pitch Materials in Bartók’s String Quartet No.3.” Perspectives of New Music 18(1979): 287-379.Buehrer, Ted.“Prologational Structure in Bartók’s Pitch-Centric Music: A Prelimniary Study.” Indiana Theory Review 18(1997): 1-14.Bujić, Bojan. Music in European Thought 1851-1912. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.Chalmers, Kenneth. Béla Bartók.London: Phaidon Press, 1995.Chapman, Roger E. “The Fifth Quartet of Béla Bartók.” Music Review(1951): 296-303. Clifford, Robert John. Aspects of Meter and Accent in Seclected String Quartet Movements by Beethoven and Bartók. M.M.thesis. of The University of Arizona, 1990.Cobbett, Walteer Wilson ed. Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music vol.1. London: Oxford University Press, 1984.Demény, János ed. Béla Bartók Letters. London: Faber & Faber, 1971.Ferguson, Donald N. Image and Structure in Chamber Music. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1964.Fischer, John Frederic. Cyclic Procedures in the String Quartet from Beerhoven to Bartók. Ph.D. diss., The University of Iowa, 1981.Forte, Allen. The Structure of Atonal Music.New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973.─────Notation and Tonal Structure in Bartók’s Later Works. Ph.D diss,University of London, 1986.Franklin, Peter. The Idea of Music: Schoenberg and Others.London: Macmillan, 1985.Frigyesi, Judit. Béla Bartók and Turn-of-the-Century Budapest. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.Gillies, Malcolm. Nation and Tonal Structure in Bartók Later Works. New York: Garland, 1989.―────Bartók Remembered. New York: Norton, 1990.―────The Bartók Companion. Portland: Amadeus Press, 1993.Gleason, Harold & Warren Becker. Chamber Music from Haydn to Bartók. Bloomington: Franfipani Press, 1980.Gow, David. “Tonality and Structure in Bartók’s First Two String Quartets.” Music Review 34(1973): 259-71.Griffiths, Paul. BartókLondon: Dent, 1984.─────The String Quartet: A History. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1983.─────Modern Music. London: Thames & Hudson, 1990.Hansen, Peter S. An Introduction to Twentieth Century Music. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc, 1971.Hawthorne, Robin “The Fugal Technique of Béla Bartók.” Music Review (1949): 277-85.Howat, Roy. “Bartók, Lendvai and the Principles of Proportional Analysis.”Music Analysis 2(1983): 69-95.Hull, A.Eaglefield.“The Earlist Known String Quartet.” The Musical Quarterly 15(1929): 72-6.Kárpáti, János. Bartók’s Chamber Music. New York: Pendragon Press, 1994.Kramer, Jonathan D. The Time of Music. New York: Schirmer Books, 1988.Laki, Peter ed. Bartók and His World. New Jersey: Princeston University Press, 1995.Lendvai, Ernő. Béla Bartók: An Analysis of His Music. London: Kahn & Averill, 1971.Locke, Derek. “Numberical Aspects of Bartók’s String Quartets.”The Musical Times 128(1987): 322-4.Marliave, Joseph de. Beethoven’s String Quartets. New York: Dover publications, 1961.Mason, Colin. “An Essay in Analysis: Tonality, Symmetry and Latent Serialism in Bartók’s Fourth Quartet.” Music Review 18(1957): 189-201.Menasce, Jacques de. “The Classicism of Béla Bartók.” Modern Music 23(1946): 83-8.Milne, Hamish. Bartók: His Life and Times. Tunbridge wells: Midas, 1982.Mitchell, Donald. The Language of Modern Music. London: Faber & Faber, 1993.Monelle, Raymand. “Notes on Bartók’s Fourth Quartet.” The Musical Times (1968): 123-9.───── “Bartók Imagination in the Later Quartets.” Music Review 29(1968): 123-9.Moreux, Serge. Béla Bartók. London: Harvill, 1953.Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth Century Music. New York: Norton, 1991.─────“Symmetrical Form and Common Practice Tonality.” Music Theory Spectrum (1998): 1-47.─────Music and Society: Modern Times. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1993.Norden, Hugo. “Proportions and the Composer.” Fibonacci Quarterly 10(1972): 319-23.Parks, Richard S. “Harmonic Resources in Bartók’s Fourths.” Journal of Music Theory 25(1981): 245-74.Perle, Geroge. The String Quartets of Béla Bartók. New York: Dover, 1967.─────“Symmetrical Formations in the String Quartets of Béla Bartók”.Music Review 16(1955):300-12.─────The Right Notes: Twenty-Three Selected Essays by Geroge Perle on Twentieth-Century Music. New York: Pendragon Press, 1995.Pincherle, Marc. “On the Origins of the String Quartet.” The Music Quarterly 15(1929): 77-87Pleasants, Henry & Tibor Serlly. “Bartók’s Historic Contribution.” Modern Music(1940): 131-46.Radice, Mark A. “Bartók’s Parodies of Beethoven.” The Music Review 42 (1981): 252-60.Rands, Bernard. “The Use of Canon in Bartók.” The Music Review (1968): 183-8.Reti, Rudolph. The Thematic Process in Music. New York: Macmillan, 1951.Rosen, Charles. Sonata Form. New York: Norton, 1980.Satory, Stephen. String Quartet Composition in Hungary, 1958-1981. Ph. D diss. of The University of Toronto, 1991.Schwarz, Elliott & Danniel Godfrey. Music Since 1945. New York: Schirmer Books, 1993.Seiber, Mátyás. The String Quartets of Béla Bartók. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1945.─── “Béla Bartók’s Chamber Music.” Tempo 13 (1949): 19-31.Simms, Bryan R. Music of the Twentieth Century. New York: Schirmer Books, 1986.Somfai, László. Béla Bartók Composition, Concepts, and Autograph Sources.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.Spinosa, Frank. “Beethoven and Bartók: A Comparative Study of Motivic Techniques in the Later Beethoven Quartets and the Six String Quartets of Béla Bartók. ” M.A thesis, Boston University, 1954.Stevens, Halsey. The Life and Music of Béla Bartók. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.Stravinsky, Igor. Poetics of Music.New York: Vintage Books, 1947.Suchoff, Benjamin.Béla Bartók Eassys. London: Faber & Faber, 1976.―────“Béla Bartók The Master Musician.” Music Educators Journal (1981): 34-57.─────“Structure and Concept in Bartók’s Sixth String Quartet.” Tempo 83 (1967): 2-11.Szentkirályi, András. “Bartók and the Twentieth Century.” Studia Musicologica 24 (1982): 475-81.Tovey, Donald Francis.Essays in Musical Analysis: Chamber Music.London: Oxford University Press, 1944.───Essays and Lectures on Music. London: Oxford University Press, 1949.Travis, Roy. “Toward A New Concept of Tonality?” Journal of Music Theory 3(1959): 257-84.─────“Tonal Coherence in First Movement of Bartók’s Fourth String Quartet.” Music Forum 2(1970): 298-371.Treitler, Leo. “Harmonic Procedure in the Fourth Quartet of Bartók.” Journal of Music Theory 3(1959): 292-8.Ulrich, Homer. Chamber Music. New York: Columbia University Press, 1966.Vinton, John. “New Light on Bartók’s Sixth Quartet.” Music Review (1946): 224-38.───“Bartók on His Own Music.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 19 (1966): 232-43.Walsh, Stephen. Bartók Chamber Music. London: BBC Publications, 1982.Webster, J.H. Douglas. “Golden Mean Form in Music.” Music & Letters 31(1950): 238-48.Wilson, Paul. The Music of Béla Bartók. New York: Yale University Press, 1992.Whittall, Arnold. Music since the First World War. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1977.───── Musical Composition in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.─────“Bartók’s Second String Quartet.” Music Review 32(1971): 265-70.Yeston, Maury. The Stratification of Musical Rhythm. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.中文書目:鄧元忠。《西洋近代文化史》。 台北市:五南書局,民國七十九年。李邁先。《東歐諸國史》。 台北市:三民書局,民國八十年。貝拉‧巴爾托克。 《巴爾托克論文書信選》。 人民音樂出版社編輯部、湖北藝術學院作曲系 編。台北市:世界文物出版社,民國八十二年。傅啟學。《世界史綱》。 台北市:正中書局,民國八十二年。哈密許‧麥恩。 《偉大作曲家群像─巴爾托克》。 林靜枝、丁佳甯 譯。台北市:智庫文化股份有限公司,民國八十五年。參考樂譜:Bartók String Quartet No.1International Music Company, New York.Bartók String Quartet No.2Boosey & Hawkes Inc(Universal Edition)Bartók String Quartet No.3Boosey & Hawkes Inc(Universal Edition)Bartók String Quartet No.4Boosey & Hawkes Inc(Universal Edition)Bartók String Quartet No.5Boosey & Hawkes Inc(Universal Edition)Bartók String Quartet No.6Boosey & Hawkes Inc(Universal Edition)
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