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研究生:薛孟旻
研究生(外文):Meng-Min Hsueh
論文名稱:日本無針烏賊SepillajaponicaSasaki,1929(Sepiidae:Cephalopoda:Mollusca)尾腺之形態與可能的功能
論文名稱(外文):Morphology and possible function of caudal glands of Sepiella japonica Sasaki,1929 (Sepiidae:Cephalopoda:Mollusca)
指導教授:陳宏遠陳宏遠引用關係盧重成盧重成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Houng-Yung ChenChung-cheng Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:功能尾腺日本無針烏賊形態
外文關鍵詞:morphologyfunctionSepiella japonicacaudal gland
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無針烏賊(Sepiella)身體末端的腺體是很明顯的構造,也是分類上鑑定屬的重要特徵,然而對其研究卻很少,僅有Steenstrup(1879-80)對其形態作了描述,並認為它是特殊的,但沒有深入研究。日本無針烏賊在台灣漁市場是常見種類,本實驗希望經由日本無針烏賊(Sepiella japonica Sasaki,1929)能對Sepiella身體末端腺體有更進一步的認識。由於這個腺體位於無針烏賊身體末端,Sasaki (1929) 稱之為尾腺(caudal gland)。尾腺位置在身體中線末端,兩個鰭(fin)之間,內殼末端(幾丁質部分)的背面與背部皮膚之間,為一個卵形的囊狀腔室,內壁有許多縱向皺褶,裡面含有褐色的液體分泌物,液體中還含有深褐色的顆粒,並且在兩個鰭之間的裂口處,鰭與外套膜交接處,較靠近腹面的皮膚表面有一明顯的開口,經由解剖觀察,發現尾腺背面皮膚下的結締組織含有虹色細胞(iridophores),再加上頭足類能有效率控制色素細胞(chromatophores),推測日本無針烏賊能控制是否表現出尾腺的存在;尾腺外圍具有環肌,推測日本無針烏賊能主動釋出尾腺分泌物,尾腺壁的肌肉亦能幫助尾腺釋出分泌物;尾腺的發育由其腹面開始,胚胎時期尾腺僅為一片狀表皮構造,隨著個體成長尾腺前端凸出皮膚表面,沿著鰭的腹面延伸,逐漸形成囊狀,在成體尾腺腹面皺褶比背面者粗大且分支複雜;以掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察到尾腺表面具有許多小孔,分泌物能由這些小孔釋出;由組織切片的觀察,知道尾腺的表皮細胞由單層柱狀上皮細胞(simple columnar epithelial cells)所構成,並且分泌物由此分泌出來。分泌物中含有多種深褐色的顆粒,有圓球狀外圍具毛邊者、結晶狀顆粒、圓球狀半透明小泡、及嗜鹼性顆粒;以及多種細胞,包括圓形細胞、具似偽足構造的細胞及V形核細胞;由分泌物的基本性質測試可知分泌物顆粒為有機物,並且含有磷、硫、氯等元素;以尾腺及浸泡過尾腺分泌物的餌料餵食海鱺稚魚,稚魚隨即將飼料吐出,顯示分泌物中含有稚魚所不喜歡的成分。尾腺的長徑佔背體長的15.7%,尾腺大小與背體長呈正相關,雌性與雄性的尾腺大小沒有差異,成熟個體與未成熟個體尾腺佔背體長的比例沒有差異,在各個季節尾腺佔背體長的比例也沒有差異。綜合以上結果,尾腺功能與季節、性別或生殖無關,由無針烏賊能主動排放出尾腺分泌物,且其分泌物是稚魚所不喜歡的,推測尾腺可能具有防禦的功能。
The gland in the posterior end of Sepiella is a conspicuous structure, and is a diagnostic character of the genus Sepiella. Researches on this gland were few, with only Steenstrup(1879-80)described its morphology, and he thought it was very peculiar. One species of the genus Sepiella, S. japonica is a common species in fish markets in Taiwan; therefore, it was used to study the gland. Sasaki (1929) named the gland as the caudal gland, and it is followed here. The caudal gland is located at the posterior end of the mantle, along the midline, in between the two fins, and between the dorsal skin and the cuttlebone. The caudal gland is an egg-shaped cavity, and the walls of the cavity have many vertical folds. There is brown liquid in the cavity, and the liquid contains dark brown granules. The outer opening of the cavity is in the cleft between two fins, in the junction of fins and mantle, but closer to the ventral skin. There are iridophores in the connective tissue of the hypodermis of the dorsal skin above the caudal gland. As the cephalopod can control the activities of chromatophores, S. japonica may have the ability to control the expression of the caudal gland. There are circular muscles, posterior fin conjunctive muscle, surrounding the caudal gland, so we consider that the caudal gland can emit the secretions at well, and the muscle of the walls of caudal gland can assist to emit the secretions. Development of the caudal gland begins from the ventral side of the caudal gland. In embryo, the caudal gland is a lamellar epidermis. With growth, the front of the caudal gland evaginates and the caudal gland becomes sacciform gradually. The folds of the ventral walls of the caudal gland are more massive and complicated than those of the dorsal walls. There are many pores on the surface of caudal gland’s walls. The secretion can be extruded from those pores. Histological sections of caudal glands indicated that the epidermis of the caudal gland is composed of simple columnar epithelial cells, and that the secretion is secreted from epithelial cells. There are many dark brown granules in the secretion of caudal glands. Some are spherical with a ciliary edge. Some are crystalloid. Some are transparent spherical balloons, and some are basophilic grains. The secretion also contains cells, including circular cells, cells with V- shaped nucleus, and cells with pseudopods. The secretion of caudal glands is organic, and also contains P, S, and Cl etc. The cobia juveniles fed with caudal glands or cuttlefish flesh drenched with caudal gland secretion disgorged the food immediately, indicating the cobias dislike something in the secretion. The length of the caudal gland is about 15.7﹪of the dorsal mantel length of S. japonica. A positive trend between the caudal gland size and the dorsal mantle length was observed. The caudal gland sizes were not significantly different between male and female. The proportion of caudal gland length to dorsal mantle length of S. japonica was not significantly different between mature and immature individuals. The proportion was also not significantly different among seasons. It is concluded that defence is among the functions of the caudal gland.
中文摘要‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥I
英文摘要‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥III
謝辭‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥V
目錄‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥VI
圖目錄‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥VII
表目錄‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥VIII前言‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥1
材料與方法‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥5
I.實驗動物:
II.尾腺(caudal gland)的形態
III.尾腺分泌物
IV.尾腺大小與個體形質測量
V.海鱺對尾腺組織的攝食反應
結果‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥13
I.成體的尾腺‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥13
1.解剖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥13
2.組織‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥15
3.尾腺分泌物的觀察‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥18
II.幼生的尾腺發育‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥20
1. 解剖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥20
2. 組織‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥22
III.尾腺與形質測量‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥23
IV.海鱺對尾腺組織的攝食反應‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥23
討論‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥25
結論‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥31
References‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥32
圖‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥36
表‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥63
附錄‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥70
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