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研究生:劉育志
研究生(外文):Yu-Chih Liu
論文名稱:三種蚵岩螺族群生物學之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Population Biology of Thais spp.
指導教授:方新疇方新疇引用關係劉莉蓮
指導教授(外文):Sun-Chio FongLi-Lian Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:蚵岩螺族群生物學
外文關鍵詞:population biologyThais
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蚵岩螺在台灣的礁岩岸與牡蠣(Crassostrea gigas)養殖區中是常見的螺類,過去研究集中在Thais clavigera對牡蠣產業之影響,已知蚵岩螺屬(Thais)至少有三種同時存在於台灣西海岸上,而T. rufotincta與T. keluo基礎生物學研究亦缺乏,本研究探討台灣西海岸這三種蚵岩螺(Thais spp.)之族群生物學,包括攝食率、生殖特徵、族群動態等。
野外調查顯示T. clavigera在台灣西海岸的分佈北從淡水,往南延伸至東港,但是在東港數量稀少,而T. keluo主要分佈在西海岸的淡水與東港,在其它地點則是不易發現,T. rufotincta分佈北從淡水,往南延伸至東港,但是越過台西後數量稀少。
三種蚵岩螺T. clavigera、T. keluo及T. rufotincta對牡蠣的平均攝食率(±SE)分別為0.054(±0.010)、0.038(±0.004)、0.010(±0.003) oysters/snail‧day,其中T. rufotincta較其它兩種蚵岩螺的攝食率低(P<0.05),由此推測T. clavigera與T. keluo對牡蠣養殖有較大之損害。
T. clavigera的產卵鞘期在11月至隔年5月止,T. keluo的產卵鞘期在2月至9月止,而T. rufotincta的產卵鞘期在4月至10月止;蚵岩螺(Thais spp.)卵鞘長度與卵鞘內含卵數有直線迴歸關係(P<0.001),T. clavigera、T. keluo及T. rufotincta的平均卵鞘含卵數(±95%信賴區間)分別為203(±14)、168(±15)及43(±3)個;而各種之平均卵徑(±95%信賴區間)分別為185(±3)、175(±4)及240(±6) μm。
各地點的蚵岩螺體長─體重曲線迴歸關係分析結果皆具顯著性(P<0.001);根據體長頻度資料由電子體長頻度分析(Electronic Length Frequency Analysis, ELEFAN)推算這三種蚵岩螺在各地的季節性變化本托蘭斐成長方程式之各參數(L∞、K、C、WP),綜合而言,成長表現指數(ø'')在地點間的差異與成長參數(K)呈相同趨勢,在T. clavigera是七股>淡水>香山,在T. keluo淡水>東港,而在T. rufotincta則是七股>東港。由本實驗結果推測水溫與食物豐度,可能是造成台灣西海岸蚵岩螺成長表現有差異的重要因子。
此外,位在七股及東港的蚵岩螺(T. rufotincta)1年有2次補充群進入與T. clavigera與T. keluo的1年1次不同;且同種不同地點之蚵岩螺(Thais spp.)補充群進入的高峰期不同,而環境變數(如初級生產力、鹽度、海流等)與補充群進入的高峰時期之關係還有待進一步研究。
Oyster drills are common on rocky shores and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) farming areas in Taiwan. Most studies on the oyster drill (Thais clavigera) were on its impact on the oyster industry. However, there are at least three Thais species in the west coast of Taiwan. And the basic biology of T. rufotincta and T. keluo was insufficient. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate population biology of the three congeneric drills(Thais spp.), including feeding rate, reproductive characters and population dynamics.
T. clavigera was distributed from Tamsui to Tongkong along the west coast of Taiwan. But, it was rare at Tongkong. T. keluo was primarily found at Tamsui and Tongkong. The distribution of T. rufotincta was from Tongkong to Tamsui and mostly occurred between Tongkong and Taishi.
Mean feeding rates (±SE) of T. clavigera, T. keluo and T. rufotincta were 0.054(±0.010), 0.038(±0.004) and 0.010(±0.003) oysters/snail‧day, respectively. The feeding rate of T. rufotincta was significantly lower than other species (P<0.05). It is suggested that the major damage on oyster culture is caused by T. clavigera and T. keluo.
The spawning seasons of T. clavigera, T. keluo and T. rufotincta were from November to May, from February to September, and from April to October, respectively. The number of eggs per capsule was correlated with the length of the capsule (P<0.001) in T. clavigera, T. keluo and T. rufotincta and the number of eggs (± 95% C.I.) among them was 203(±14), 168(±15) and 43(±3) per capsule, respectively. The mean egg diameter (± 95% C.I.) of the three drills was 185(±3), 175(±4) and 240(±6) μm, respectively.
Positive curve relationships between size and weight were found among Thais spp. (P<0.001). Using the length-frequency data, analyzed by the ELEFAN (Electronic Length Frequency Analysis) program, the seasonalized von Bertalanffy growth parameters for Thais spp. were estimated. The growth performance index (ø'') and growth parameter (K) showed a similar trend, i.e. Chiku>Tamsui>Shiangsan for T. clavigera, Tamsui > Tongkong for T. keluo, and Chiku > Tongkong for T. rufotincta. It is suggested that water temperature and food abundance are important factors affecting drills’ growth in the west coast of Taiwan.
The recruitment of T. rufotincta at Chiku and Tongkong had two peaks. It was different from T. clavigera and T. keluo with only one peak. Futher studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between recruitment with different peak periods among sites and environment variables such as primary production, salinity, current and so on.
目 錄
章次 頁次
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
謝辭……………………………………………………………………..Ⅶ
目錄……………………………………………………………………..Ⅷ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅸ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅹ
附表目錄………………………………………………………………. XI
附圖目錄……………………………………………...……………….XII
一、緒論………………………………………………………………….1
二、材料與方法………………………………………………………….5
三、結果………………………………………………………………..13
四、討論…………………………………………………………………20
參考文獻……………………………………………………………… .29
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