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研究生:余欣怡
研究生(外文):Hsin-Yi Yu
論文名稱:台灣鄰近海域大翅鯨的歌曲及鯨豚通訊演化
論文名稱(外文):Songs of a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Taiwan and evolution of communication in cetaceans
指導教授:魏瑞昌莫顯蕎莫顯蕎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Chung WeiHin-Kiu Mok
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:44
中文關鍵詞:訊號演化洄游歌曲訊號大翅鯨洄游演化
外文關鍵詞:songshumpback whalemigrationsignalsevolution
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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大翅鯨(Megaptera novaeangliae)屬於鬚鯨亞目,廣布於南北半球之極帶、熱帶及溫帶海域,牠們會進行年度性的迴游:夏季在高緯度的覓食區,冬季於低緯度的交配及育幼區。在北太平洋,主要的覓食區包括:鄂霍次克海、阿留申群島、白令海、阿拉斯加灣、及阿拉斯加東南沿岸到加州。主要的生殖區可分為三大區域:(1)太平洋中部,夏威夷周圍的海域。(2)東太平洋地區:墨西哥沿岸。(3)西太平洋:小笠原群島、琉球群島、馬里亞納群島及台灣東南岸。而在台灣海域早期的捕鯨記錄顯示在1920-1967間每年有1∼60頭不等的大翅鯨在恆春一帶捕獲,之後數十年間只有零星的漁民及賞鯨船紀錄。
從1971年Dr. Rager Payne首次發表大翅鯨會有複雜而重複性高的歌曲(song)開始至今,全球各大海域的大翅鯨的歌聲被廣泛的紀錄、分析與比較,但西北太平洋的琉球海域只有少數的資料。而台灣於2000年周蓮香教授執行台東縣政府委託計畫,在蘭嶼海域首次完整記錄到一隻成年雄性個體短暫停留期間的歌曲,本研究藉由分析該迴游至台灣鄰近海域的大翅鯨歌聲,瞭解其歌曲結構及和其他地區的歌曲比較,期瞭解族群的移動情況。
利用訊號分析軟體Kay CSL (Computerized Speech Lab) 4300B分析歌曲的相關聲學特徵,並參照文獻中相關的定義(Payne 1971)去瞭解其歌曲的結構:其中歌曲長度14.2分鐘,共有五個主題 (theme)、九個單元(unit) 所構成。其聲壓值為189.6 dB,(n=32, SEM=2.81),R值(Redundancy)為:0.212。記錄時間中,歌曲的組成穩定,其聲學特徵無顯著差異。比較此個體歌曲及其他海域歌曲之頻譜圖,發現與琉球海域其頻率組成及訊號特徵均符合。配合尾鰭照片之個體辨識,此個體的確屬於西北太平洋的族群之一。盼往後能蒐集更多台灣海域的大翅鯨個體的歌曲,建立其聲學資料庫。
鯨豚為適應水中的生活發展出獨特的發聲方式,將其個體或群體間通訊聲音的訊號分成兩大類:脈衝聲及哨聲,作為系統分類上的一個特徵型質,並用紅鹿為外群建構鯨豚通訊演化模式。支序分析親緣關係圖將其分成兩大單系群,訊號演化的順序為:哨聲存在 → 增加脈衝聲為通訊訊號 → 哨聲消失,僅剩下脈衝聲。依照結果顯示:齒鯨亞目並不為一單系群。
海豚科的種類是否使用脈衝性聲音作為通訊的訊號需要更進一步的研究。而抹香鯨、小抹香鯨、侏儒抹香鯨、貝爾氏喙鯨及賀克氏海豚這五個種類,不論何種情況均完全未使用哨聲,這些種類為何會完全丟棄祖先的特徵而使用後衍徵之原因尚不瞭解。
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) belong baleen whales. They migrate between high-latitude summer feeding regions and low-latitude wintering regions where calving and make place.There were 1~60 humpback whales whaled every year during 1920~1967 in southern Taiwan. However, only a few sights were recorded in the past twenty years.
A male humpback whale was sighted on the east coast of Taiwan in March, 2000. His songs recorded during between three-day tailing were analysed. There were five themes and nine units in the songs, a complete song duration lasted about 14.2 minutes. The maximal sound pressure level was 189.6 dB (n=32, SEM =2.81). The acoustic characters (i.e., signal duration, time between two signals, theme duration, fundamental frequency) of the songs were not significant different. A visual comparison of the spectrograms of the sound units from this particalar whale with those northwest Pacific Ocean showed similarity. This individual was a member of the population in the northwest Pacific Ocean. This conclusion was also supported by the result of Photo-ID of its fluke.
Ceatceans live in the water and develop the special model to produce sounds. There are two kinds of communicative signals: pulses and whistles. These two signals were characters of phylogenetic relationship and the outgroup was red deer. There were two monophyletic groups. Evolution of communicative signals in cetaceans was whistle existent and added the pulses signals. Last, the whistles lost and only with pulses.
The fumctions of pulse signals in communication was unknown in delphinidae. Sperm whales, pygmy sperm whales, dwarf sperm whales, Baird’s beaked whales and Hector’s dolphins were only use pulse signals. The reason of this change was unclear.
目 錄
章 次頁 碼
第一部份1
壹、前言…………………………………………………2
貳、研究方法與材料……………………………………3
參、結果…………………………………………………6
肆、討論…………………………………………………8
第二部分11
壹、前言…………………………………………………12
貳、研究方法與材料……………………………………12
參、結果…………………………………………………13
肆、討論…………………………………………………14
伍、參考文獻……………………………………………16
表………………………………………………………20
圖………………………………………………………33
附錄………………………………………………………44
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