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研究生:黃行志
研究生(外文):Hsing- Chih Hwang
論文名稱:西北太平洋氟氯碳化物的分布與模式研究
論文名稱(外文):Distribution and Modeling of Chlorofluorocarbons in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean
指導教授:鍾玉嘉
指導教授(外文):Yu-Cheng Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋地質及化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:氟氯碳化物年齡交換速率西北太平洋
外文關鍵詞:CFCexchange rateApparent ageNorthcoast Pacific
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 下載下載:15
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
  氟氯碳化物由於具有高度安定性,且完全是人為所製造產生的,因此,海洋中的氟氯碳化物是經由海氣交換而來,這些特性使它成為海洋研究的良好示蹤劑。氟氯碳化物與氚均因人為因素而大量產生,且為低生物性因子,而在海洋中的傳輸也相當相似,因此,本研究乃借用1983年Sarmiento提出北大西洋的氚盒子模式來探討氟氯碳化物在西北太平洋的分布。希望利用此一模式推算過去大氣與海洋若達平衡時當時的大氣中氟氯碳化物的濃度,或可作為建立大氣中的氟氯碳化物濃度歷史的一項檢驗。
  數據取自NOAA的CO2-87、CO2-88與CGC92三個航次的資料,前後二航次為165oE測線,CO2-88航次為170oW測線,選取範圍從40oN到10oN,避開了北邊複雜的環流與阻絕海氣交換作用的海冰,與南邊赤道區的湧昇流。西北太平洋26.0 sq的水165oE約在52o∼53oN處出露,170oW約在40oN處出露,在冬季時其出露緯度會向南移。氟氯碳化物濃度的垂直剖面分布型態與溶氧極為相似,海水溫、鹽度越低,氟氯碳化物較高。氟氯碳化物由北向南遞減,因高緯度地區溫、鹽度較低,氣體溶解度較大,海氣交換也較旺盛,可視為氟氯碳化物的入口,因此亦由淺至深遞減。CFC在大氣中的濃度則逐年上升,其溶解係數F為溫度與鹽度的函數,但溫度的效應較大。西北太平洋表水CFC-11與CFC-12之F值,從10oN到50oN,在165oE測線分別為5.86∼16.0與1.70∼4.15 mmole/kg/atm;在170oW測線則約為6.60∼22.2與1.89∼5.55 mmole/kg/atm。CFC-11的溶解度約為CFC-12的4倍;170oW測線的溶解度約為165oE的1.4倍,是由於兩側線在溫、鹽度的差異。當時間間隔為1年時,盒子間的交換速率大致由0.85到1.3 yr-1,CFC-11與CFC-12平均分別約為0.99與1.04 yr-1。就等密度面的空間尺度,以每六個緯度為一個盒子,盒子間的交換速率視所取的緯度範圍,最高到2.34 yr-1,最低者0.06 yr-1。由過去大氣CFC含量推算其在表水之濃度為基準,則對應到的中層水Apparent age,CFC-11與CFC-12相差不大,沿著165oE在10oN處的中層水Apparent age約17年,沿著170oW的約15年。表示CFC-11與CFC-12在西北太平洋中的蔓延速率(Spreading rate)約為172∼221 km/yr。17年間由大氣中進入海洋的CFC-11每年平均增加約0.12 pM/kg/yr,CFC-12平均增加約0.059 pM/kg/yr。回推其它年大氣中濃度的誤差,CFC-11平均約 ± 11 %;CFC-12平均約 ± 6 %。
Because CFC-11 and CFC-12 are extremely stable and purely anthropogenic and the CFCs enter the ocean through air-sea exchange at the sea surface, they serve as good tracers for studying the oceans. Since CFCs and tritium share similar characteristics such as their anthropogenic production, inertness to biological activities, a tritium box model applied to the North Atlantic Ocean by J. L. Sarmiento in 1983 is used to study the distribution of CFCs in the Northwest Pacific. This thesis attempts to use this model to calculate the past concentrations of CFCs in the atmosphere assuming equilibrium distribution between the surface ocean waters and the atmosphere in the source region of the oceans. The results may allow us to check the history of CFCs in the atmosphere.
The data used in this thesis are those reported by NOAA from three cruises: CO2-87 and CGC92 along 165oE and CO2-88 along 170oW, all from 40o to 10oN. This latitude range avoids the complex gyres and the sea-ice which may limit the air-sea exchange in the North, and also avoids the upwelling in the equatorial region. The outcrop of the 26.0 sq water is located at longitude about 52o-53oN along 165oE, but is located at about 40oN along 170oW. The outcrop will move southward in winter. The vertical distribution pattern of CFCs is similar to that of oxygen. Concentrations of CFCs in ocean water increase as potential temperature and salinity decrease. High latitudes of low temperature and salinity have high CFC solubility and high air-sea exchange rates, and are presumably the major areas for input of CFCs into the seawater. As the CFCs in the air increase over the years the concentrations of CFCs in the surface ocean water also increase but decrease with water depth. The solubility, F, of CFCs is a function of both temperature and salinity, but temperature prevails. The F values for CFC-11 and CFC-12 from 10o to 50oN along 165oE are 5.86-16.0 and 1.70-4.15 mmole/kg/ atm, respectively. The values along 170oW are, respectively, 6.60-22.2 and 1.89-5.55 mmole/kg/atm. The solubility of CFC-11 is about four times as large as that of CFC-12. The solubility of CFCs along 170oW is about 1.4 times along 165oE because of temperature and salinity differences. The exchange rate in the time scale for =1 year ranges 0.85-1.3 yr-1, CFC-11 has a mean of 0.99 yr-1, CFC-12 has a mean of about 1.04 yr-1. Along the isopycnal surface of sq=26.0, the highest exchange rate between two boxes is 2.34 yr-1, the lowest 0.06 yr-1. Based on the calculated concentrations of CFCs in the surface seawater from the atmospheric value in the past, apparent ages of the Mode Waters are similar for both CFC-11 and CFC-12. The apparent age along 165oE at 10oN is about 17 years on the defined isocypnal surface, and it is about 15 years along 170oW at 10oN. The spreading rate of CFCs in the Northwest Pacific is thus about 172-221 km/yr. During the 17 years, the annual increase in influx to the seawater is about 0.12 pM/kg/yr for CFC-11, and about 0.059 pM/kg/yr for CFC-12. The error in calculating atmosphere CFCs in the past is about 11 % for CFC-11, and 6 % for CFC-12.
致謝I
摘要II
Abstract IV
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 X
壹、前言1
  一、研究對象──氟氯碳化物2
    (一)氟氯碳化物的影響2
    (二)大氣中的氟氯碳化物2
  二、研究區域──西北太平洋5
    (一)西北太平洋之邊緣海5
    (二)西北太平洋之環流6
    (三)北太平洋的Mode Water8
  三、氚的盒子模式8
貳、研究方法10
  一、資料來源10
    (一)採樣與分析10
    (二)測線資料10
  二、氟氯碳化物的盒子模式14
    (一)氟氯碳化物的性質14
    (二)氟氯碳化物的傳輸模式14
參、結果與討論19
  一、氟氯碳化物之分布19
  二、氟氯碳化物傳輸模式之應用29
    (一)氟氯碳化物的溶解度29
    (二)Outcrop 34
    (三)交換速率μ之計算34
    (四)Apparent age 42
  三、總結44
肆、參考資料46
  一、中文部分46
  二、外文部分46
伍、附錄50
  一、溶解度計算公式50
  附表一、歷年來全球大氣中氟氯碳化物的含量、增加量與年增率51
  附表二、1987年CO2-87航次之水文及CFCs數據 55
  附表三、1988年CO2-88航次之水文及CFCs數據 61
  附表四、1992年CGC92航次之水文及CFCs數據 67
  附表五、各航次於26.0 sq等密度面之水文及CFCs數據 78
圖 目 錄
圖1 北半球歷年來大氣中CFC-11與CFC-12濃度及
CFC-11/CFC-12比值.3
圖2 歷年來大氣中CFC-11與CFC-12濃度之年增率4
圖3 太平洋之表面洋流..6
圖4 CO2-87與CO2-88之採樣位置圖.13
圖5 CGC92之採樣位置圖13
圖6 CFCs之傳輸概念圖16
圖7 CO2-87航次Potential Temperature沿著165oE之垂直分布20
圖8 CGC92航次Potential Temperature沿著165oE之垂直分布.20
圖9 CO2-88航次Potential Temperature沿著170oW之垂直分布20
圖10 CO2-87航次Salinity沿著165oE之垂直分布21
圖11 CGC92航次Salinity沿著165oE之垂直分布.21
圖12 CO2-88航次Salinity沿著170oW之垂直分布21
圖13 CO2-87航次Oxygen沿著165oE之垂直分布23
圖14 CGC92航次Oxygen沿著165oE之垂直分布.23
圖15 CO2-88航次Oxygen沿著170oW之垂直分布23
圖16 CO2-87航次CFC-11與CFC-12溶解度沿著165oE的垂直分布..24
圖17 CGC92航次CFC-11與CFC-12溶解度沿著165oE的垂直分布24
圖18 CO2-88航次CFC-11與CFC-12溶解度沿著170oW的垂直分布..24
圖19 CGC92航次位溫與鹽度對CFC-12溶解度之相關性.25
圖20 CO2-87航次CFC-11沿著165oE之濃度垂直分布.26
圖21 CGC92航次CFC-11沿著165oE之濃度垂直分布.26
圖22 CO2-88航次CFC-11沿著170oW之濃度垂直分布.26
圖23 CO2-87航次CFC-12沿著165oE之濃度垂直分布.27
圖24 CGC92航次CFC-12沿著165oE之濃度垂直分布.27
圖25 CO2-88航次CFC-12沿著170oW之濃度垂直分布.27
圖26 各航次40oN測站之CFC-11、CFC-12與溶氧之垂直剖面分布.28
圖27 CGC92航次測站39水深1500 m以內之CFC-11與CFC-12對
Oxygen之相關性..29
圖28 各航次由南到北各測站表水之CFCs溶解度.. 31
圖29 CO2-87航次沿著26.0 σθ等密度面鹽度及位溫對CFC-12
溶解度之相關性.33
圖30 CO2-87航次沿著26.0 σθ等密度面鹽度與位溫之相關性33
圖31 CO2-87航次沿著26.0 σθ等密度面溶氧與CFC-12之相關性..33
圖32 CO2-87航次Sigma Theta沿著165oE之垂直分布.35
圖33 CGC92航次Sigma Theta沿著165oE之垂直分布..35
圖34 CO2-88航次Sigma Theta沿著170oW之垂直分布.35
圖35 歷年來進入海水表層之CFCs觀測值與模擬結果36
圖36 由大氣中CFCs換算成海水濃度所得到的交換速率μ.37
圖37 由海水中CFCs濃度反推大氣中CFCs含量的模擬結果.38
圖38 不同等密度面之CFCs濃度41
圖39 CFC-11與CFC-12在CO2-88與CGC92的Apparent age..43
表 目 錄
表一、1987年CO2-87航次資料11
表二、1988年CO2-88航次資料12
表三、海水鹽度從33到35時不同溫度下CFC-11與CFC12溶解度30
表四、各航次不同緯度表水CFCs之溶解度30
表五、歷年來大氣中每十年之CFC-11/CFC-1232
表六、各航次不同緯度與不同σθ的表水溶解度32
表七、各航次測線在不同σθ下之Outcrop位置34
表八、各緯度CFC-11與CFC-12的交換速率μ40
肆、參考資料
一、中文部分
王樹倫,1997,西北太平洋邊緣海二氧化碳之研究。國立中山大學海洋地質及化學研究所博士論文,117 pp。
陳鎮東,1994,海洋化學。茂昌圖書有限公司,台北,551 pp。
魏國慶和許晃雄,1997,全球環境變遷導論。台灣大學全球環境變遷研究中心,教育部印行,時英出版社,台北。
二、外文部分
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Bullister, J. L., 1989, Chlorofluorocarbons as time dependent tracers in the Ocean, Ocean. Mag., 2, 12-17.
Cunnold, D. M., P. J. Fraser, R. F. Weiss, R.G. Prinn, P.G. Simmonds, B.R. Miller, F. N. Alyea, and A. J. Crawford, 1994, Global trends and annual releases of CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 estimates from ALE/GAGE and other measurements from July 1978 to June 1991, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 1107-1126.
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Hanawa, K., 1987, Interannual variation of the winter-time outcrop area of subtro-pical mode water in the western North Pacific Ocean, Atmosphere Ocean, 25, 358-374.
IPCC, 1990, Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, and J. J. Ephraums, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 364 pp.
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Lee, B-S, 1998, Use of Chlorofluorocarbons as ocean tracers and for estimating the removal rates of CFC-11 and carbon tetrachloride in certain marine environments, Ph. D. dissertation, University of Washington, 178 pp.
Matear, R. J. and C. S. Wong, 1997, Estimation of vertical mixing in the upper ocean at Station P from chlorofluorocarbons, Journal of Marine Research, 55, 507-521.
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Munk, W. H., 1966, Abyssal recipes, Deep-sea Research, 13, 707-730.
NOAA, 1989, The NOAA Chlorofluorocarbon Trace Program Air and Seawater Measurement: 1986-1989, NOAA Data Report, National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA/PMEL), University of Washington.
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Sarmiento, J. L., 1983a, A simulation of bomb tritium entry into the Atlantic Ocean, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 13, 1924-1939.
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