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研究生:蔡康齡
研究生(外文):Kang-Ling Tsai
論文名稱:南沖繩海槽西端顆粒物質中鉛-210與釙-210之不平衡現象
論文名稱(外文):Pb-210 and Po-210 radioactive disequilibrium in particulates of the western South Okinawa Trough
指導教授:鍾玉嘉
指導教授(外文):Yu-Chia Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋地質及化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:釙-210鉛-210南沖繩海槽沈積物收集器
外文關鍵詞:Po-210Pb-210South Okinawa Troughsediment trap
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為瞭解台灣東北海域沈降顆粒的來源、傳輸途徑與最終去處,分別在宜蘭海脊北坡(T17S及T18S)與南沖繩海槽(T19S)施放了3串共6個沈積物收集器錨碇串列,收集器置於離底深100 m及300 m處。T17S的收集器串列因旋轉環鏽蝕斷裂而流失。各站佈放期間6個月(1999年11月底至2000年5月初),採樣間隔為15天。於錨碇回收同時在各站附近採取水樣過濾,並於T19S採取一箱型岩芯,以比較沈降和懸浮顆粒與沈積物間之差異。
表觀顆粒通量顯示T18S於2000年1月、2月及4月初有高值出現,其通量變化介於11至91 g/m2/d之間,而T19S則介於6至22 g/m2/d之間。T18S之鉛-210活性時序變化介於46至76 dpm/g之間,而T19S則介於79至122 dpm/g之間,比T18S高許多。T18S之釙-210活性時序變化介於18至90 dpm/g之間,而T19S則介於65至193 dpm/g之間,變化較T18S大,活性也較高。T18S之釙/鉛比值大多小於1,約為0.8;T19S之釙/鉛比值則大於1,平均約為1.3。測站T17S、T18S與T19S水柱中全量釙-210活性介於0.6至16 dpm/100kg之間,其全量鉛-210活性介於28至43 dpm/100kg之間,全量釙/鉛比值均小於1,平均約為0.3,表示水柱中的釙-210極易被移除而不足。T19S箱型岩芯中釙-210活性介於54至121 dpm/g之間,其鉛-210活性介於51至90 dpm/g之間,釙/鉛比值在6 cm以上大於1,呈釙-210超量分佈,6 cm以下釙-210與鉛-210活性接近平衡。
水體中釙/鉛比值在首次半年錨碇後較高,第二次半年錨碇後較低。沈降顆粒中釙/鉛比值則相反,首次半年錨碇之平均比值較低,第二次半年錨碇之平均比值較高。此一改變可能是因第二次半年錨碇時或之前受地震影響,造成大量陸源顆粒物質輸入與棚坡區沈積物再懸浮,而這些顆粒物質已有較高的有機質與釙/鉛比值,再加上水體中釙-210易被有機顆粒清除使然。
In order to understand the source, transport pathway and sink of settling particulates in the sea off northeast Taiwan, three moorings with six sediment traps (about 100 m and 300 m above bottom) were deployed on the northern slope of the Ilan ridge (T17S and T18S) and in the South Okinawa trough (T19S). The mooring deployed at T17S was lost due to a connecting ring which was rusted and broken. The duration of the mooring was 6 months (late November, 1999 to early May, 2000) with sampling intervals at 15 days each. When the moorings were recovered, seawater samples were collected for filtration near each station and a box core at T19S was also taken so that the settling particulates, suspended particulates and bottom sediments can be compared for their characteristics.
The results show that higher apparent mass fluxes were observed in January, February and early April, 2000 at T18S. The apparent mass fluxes vary between 11 and 91 g/m2/d at T18S, and between 6 and 22 g/m2/d at T19S. The time-series variations of the Pb-210 activity are between 46 and 76 dpm/g at T18S, and between 79 and 122 dpm/g at T19S, the values of which are much higher than those of T18S. The temporal Po-210 variations range between 18 and 90 dpm/g at T18S, and from 65 to 193 dpm/g at T19S. The Po-210 activity and its variation are greater at T19S than at T18S. The 210Po/210Pb activity ratios are less than unity at about 0.8 at T18S, and greater than unity at about 1.3 at T19S. The total Po-210 activity in all water columns varies between 0.2 and 16 dpm/100kg while the total Pb-210 activity varies between 28 and 43 dpm/100kg. The mean total 210Po/210Pb activity ratio is about 0.3, indicating that Po-210 was easily scavenged and removed from water columns by particulate matter. The box core taken at T19S has Po-210 activity ranging from 54 to 121 dpm/g and Pb-210 activity from 51 to 90 dpm/g. The 210Po/210Pb activity ratio is greater than unity in the upper 6 cm, indicating an excess of Po-210 activity. Below 6 cm Po-210 and Pb-210 are nearly at equilibrium.
The 210Po/210Pb activity ratios in the water columns observed after the first deployments were higher than those observed after the second deployments. However, the 210Po/210Pb activity ratios of the settling particulates collected from the first trap deployments were lower than those from the second trap deployments. These changes might be attributed to earthquakes which occurred mainly before the second mooring period. These earthquakes could have caused a large quantity of terrigenous particulates with higher 210Po/210Pb activity ratio to be transported out to the study area in addition to resuspended shelf and slope sediments. These settling particulates, being enriched in organic matter with higher activity ratio, could preferentially scavenge Po-210 from the water column, resulting in much higher 210Po/210Pb activity ratios.
總 目 錄
誌謝 ……………………………………………………………Ⅰ
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………Ⅱ
英文摘要 ..……………………………………………………..Ⅲ
總目錄 …………………………………………………………Ⅴ
圖目錄 …………………………………………………………Ⅶ
表目錄 …………………………………………………………Ⅷ
一、序論…………………………………………………………1
1.1前言…………………………………………………….1
1.2研究目的……………………………………………….1
二、研究區域……………………………………………………2
2.1地形與水文背景……………………………………….2
2.2採樣區域……………………………………………….2
三、採樣與樣品處理及分析方法………………………………4
3.1收集器樣品…………………………………………….4
3.1.1沈積物收集器佈放前準備……………………….4
3.1.2收集器回收後樣品分割………………………….4
3.1.3收集器回收後子樣品前處理…………………….6
3.2水樣品………………………………………………….6
3.2.1顆粒態之處理…………………………………….6
3.2.2溶解態之處理…………………………………….7
3.3岩芯樣品……………………………………………….7
3.4燒失量 (L.O.I.)測定………………………….……….8
3.5粒徑分析……………………………………………….8
3.6釙-210活性分析……………………………………….9
3.7鉛-210活性分析……………………………………….9
3.7.1以再生釙-210測鉛-210活性(α法)……………..9
3.7.2以測量鉍-210活性方法偵測鉛-210活性(β法)..10
四、數據處理……………………………………………………10
4.1鉛-210活性計算……………………………………….10
4.1.1α法……………………………………………….11
4.1.2β法……………………………………………….11
4.2採樣當時之釙-210活性計算………………………….13
4.2.1若釙-210活性>鉛-210活性(釙-210 為超量時)13
4.2.2若釙-210活性<鉛-210活性(釙-210 為不足時)14
五、結果與討論…………………………………………………15
5.1沈降顆粒……………………………………………….15
5.1.1各站沈降顆粒通量……………………………….15
5.1.2各站沈降顆粒粒徑……………………………….19
5.1.3各站沈降顆粒釙-210及鉛-210的活性分佈……25
5.1.3.1釙-210活性變化…………………………..25
5.1.3.2鉛-210活性變化…………………………..28
5.1.4各站沈降顆粒釙-210及鉛-210的活性和顆粒通量的關係………………………………………...31
5.1.5各站沈降顆粒燒失量(L.O.I.)與釙-210及鉛-210活性的關係……………………………………...31
5.1.6小結……………………………………………….39
5.2水中溶解態與顆粒態之核種變化..…………………...39
5.2.1總懸浮顆粒濃度(T.S.M.)...………………………39
5.2.2各站水樣中釙-210及鉛-210在顆粒態與溶解態的變化…………………………………………...43
5.3 T19S岩芯的釙-210及鉛-210分佈…………………...48
5.4綜合討論……………………………………………….52
六、結論…………………………………………………………53
參考文獻………………………………………………………..54
圖目錄
圖1、研究區域之海底地形圖及錨碇位置圖…………………….3
圖2、沈積物收集器裝置圖……………………………………….5
圖3、各站收集器顆粒通量時序變化圖………………………….18
圖4、蘭陽溪徑流量與顆粒通量時序變化圖…………………….20
圖5、T18及T18S粒俓時序變化圖………………………………24
圖6、顆粒通量與粒徑關係圖…………………………………….26
圖7、沈降顆粒釙-210活性時序變化圖…………………………27
圖8、沈降顆粒鉛-210活性時序變化圖…………………………29
圖9、沈降顆粒釙/鉛活性比值時序變化圖……………………....30
圖10、沈降顆粒鉛-210和釙-210活性與顆粒通量關係圖………32
圖11、沈降顆粒釙-210活性與粒徑關係………………………..33
圖12、沈降顆粒鉛-210活性與粒徑關係………………………..34
圖13、沈降顆粒L.O.I.時序變化圖………………………………37
圖14、沈降顆粒L.O.I.與顆粒通量關係圖………………………38
圖15、鉛-210和釙-210活性與L.O.I關係圖……………………40
圖16、第一次與第二次錨碇後採取水樣之T.S.M.剖面圖….…..42
圖17、水樣釙-210顆粒態與溶解態活性剖面圖………………..44
圖18、水樣鉛-210顆粒態與溶解態活性剖面圖………………..46
圖19、水樣全量鉛-210與釙-210活性剖面圖…………………..47
圖20、水樣全量釙/鉛活性比值圖……………………………….49
圖21、T19S箱型岩芯鉛-210與釙-210活性剖面圖…………….50
圖22、T19S岩芯超量鉛-210自然對數變化率圖……………….51
表目錄
表1、T18S及T19S收集器所得之顆粒通量時序變化及T19S岩芯之釙-210與鉛-210活性及其比值…………………….16
表2、T17S、T18S及T19S錨碇期間在台灣東北地區規模大於4級的地震日期與位置……………………………………..21
表3、T18S及T19S收集器樣品及T19S岩芯樣品已去除有機質及碳酸鈣後之粒徑組成百分比………………………….22
表4、T18S及T19S收集器樣品及T19S岩芯燒失量(L.O.I.)….35
表5、T18收集器樣品燒失量(L.O.I.)…………………………….36
表6、各測站水柱中總懸浮顆粒濃度及顆粒態與溶解態釙-210及鉛-210活性及其比值…………………………………….41
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