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研究生:吳宗恩
研究生(外文):Tzong-En Wu
論文名稱:南海北部海域水體中Pb-210與Po-210活性不平衡狀態
論文名稱(外文):Radioactive disequilibrium Between Pb-210 and Po-210 in Water Columns of the Northern South China Sea
指導教授:鍾玉嘉
指導教授(外文):Yu-chia Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋地質及化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:釙-210懸浮顆粒濃度鉛-210南海北部
外文關鍵詞:SPMNorthern South China SeaPb-210Po-210
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本研究的主要目的是要瞭解南海北部海域水體中Pb-210 與Po-210 在顆粒態及溶解態中的分佈及其意義,包括藉由其活性不平衡推算滯留時間。利用海研一號分別於2000年3月(ORI-575 航次)、4 月(ORI-580 航次)、7 月(ORI-588 航次)及2001 年4 月(ORI-606航次)進行7 個測站(B、C、D、F、W2、W3、W5)之剖面採樣,因ORI-588 航次巧遇颱風,測站C 於颱風前、後皆採樣(C1、C2),以觀測颱風之影響。因Ra-226 剖面未克量測,其與Pb-210 剖面之關係無法在本論文中討論。
南海各測站之懸浮顆粒濃度(SPM)經過濾所得,平均在0.2mg/kg左右,變化不大。Po-210 與Pb-210 活度分佈均高於KEEP 在東海所量測的結果。大氣來源的Pb-210 主要顯現在表水的溶解態部分,活度介於15∼25 dpm/100kg。溶解態Pb-210 最低值出現在300∼1000m之間,活度大約為5∼15 dpm/100kg。在1000m以下,活性變化小,於2000∼3000m間有極大值,可達20dpm/100kg,如C站所見。顆粒態Pb-210 的活度大約介於3∼5dpm/100kg 之間,剖面變化不大。溶解態Po-210 趨勢與溶解態Pb-210 相類似,但活度比Pb-210低約5∼10 dpm/100kg。Po-210 在水柱中的平均滯留時間大約為10個月,而混合層全量Pb-210 的滯留時間介於0.35∼2.13 年。各測站Po-210 相對於Pb-210 在顆粒態或是溶解態中皆明顯不足,總量的活度比值平均為0.58,表示Po-210 比Pb-210 更容易被清除。因此海水中有機顆粒於清除Po-210 後,有很大部分在分解前可能已進入食物鏈中而無法觀測到。
The purposes of this study are to understand the variations of the particulate and dissolved Pb-210 and Po-210 in profiles in the South China Sea and to estimate the residence time of these nuclides through their extent of radioactive disequilibrium. The profiles of Pb-210 and Po-210 in particulate and dissolved phases were measured at four stations in the northern South China Sea (station B, C, D and F) and three in the Bashi Channel (stations W2, W3 and W5) from four Ocean Researcher I cruises (ORI-575, ORI-580, ORI-588 and ORI-606). At Station C two profiles were taken, one before and the other after a typhoon to see its effect, if any, during the ORI-588 cruise. As the associated Ra-226 profiles were not measured their relations to Pb-210 profiles are not available for discussion in this thesis.
The mean suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration for each station is about 0.2 mg/kg with small deviations. Activities of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the northern South China Sea were all higher than those in the sea off NE Taiwan easured during the KEEP program. The dissolved Pb-210 profiles generally display a maximum around 15 to 25 dpm/100kg in the surface layer due to atmospheric input, and a minimum of about 5 to 15 dpm/100kg from 300 to 1000 m. The activities below 1000 m vary only slightly with a deep maximum as high as 20 dpm/100kg around 2000 to 3000 m, as seen at Station C. The particulate Pb-210 is around 3 to 5 dpm/100kg with small variation for the entire water column. The dissolved Po-210 profiles are somewhat similar to the dissolved Pb-210 profiles, but lower by about 5 to 10 dpm/100kg in activity. The mean residence time is about 0.76 year for total Po-210 in the entire water column, and 0.35 to 2.13 years for total Pb-210 in the mixed layer. At each station, Po-210 is deficient relative to Pb-210 in either the particulate or dissolved phase. The mean total
Po-210/Pb-210 activity ratio is about 0.58, indicating that Po-210 is more effectively scavenged. It is imperative to understand the fate and pathway of the missing Po-210. Judging from its biophilic nature, Po-210 may have been absorbed or consumed by biomass and enriched in
various tropic levels in the food chain, in addition to being scavenged and removed by sinking particles.
中文摘要……………………………………………………… I
英文摘要……………………………………………………… III
目錄…………………………………………………………… V
圖目錄………………………………………………………… VI
表目錄………………………………………………………… VII
第一章緒論………………………………………………… 1
第二章研究方法…………………………………………… 5
2.1 採樣地點及方法………………………………… 5
2.2 分析方法………………..………………………. 8
2.3 活性修正……. …………………………………… 9
2.4 分佈係數Kd……………………………………… 12
2.5 分化係數F………………………………………... 13
第三章結果與討論………………………………………… 14
3.1 水文資料描述…………….………………………. 14
3.2 懸浮顆粒濃度(SPM)分佈.. ………………………. 18
3.3 Pb-210 和Po-210 分佈….………………………… 24
3.4 分佈係數Kd 與分化係數F………………………. 37
3.5 Pb-210 與Po-210 不平衡狀態……………………. 41
3.6 Po-210 不足的原因………………………………. 51
結論..…………………….………………………………….. 53
參考資料.…………………….……………………………….. 54
附錄…………………………………………………………… 58
圖目錄
頁碼
圖一Pb-210 與Po-210 的入海途徑示意圖…………………… 3
圖二研究區域各測站位置圖………………………………….. 6
圖三水樣中溶解態與顆粒態Pb-210 及Po-210 之分析流程圖10
圖四各深水測站之CTD鹽度剖面…………………….……….. 15
圖五各深水測站之CTD溫度剖面……………..………………. 16
圖六各深水測站之溫鹽圖…………..…………………………. 17
圖七測站W2、W3 及W5 懸浮顆粒濃度之垂直變化……..… 21
圖八測站B、D、E 及F 懸浮顆粒濃度之垂直變化…….…… 22
圖九測站C 懸浮顆粒濃度之垂直變化…..………………….… 23
圖十測站W2 顆粒態與溶解態之Pb-210 與Po-210 活性垂直
剖面圖……………………………………..….…………… 28
圖十一測站W3 及W5 顆粒態與溶解態之Pb-210 與Po-210 活
性垂直剖面圖…………………………..….……………… 29
圖十二測站B 顆粒態與溶解態之Pb-210 與Po-210 活性垂直剖
面圖………..…..…………………………………………… 31
圖十三測站D 顆粒態與溶解態之Pb-210 與Po-210 活性垂直剖
面圖………..…..…………………………………………… 32
圖十四測站F 顆粒態與溶解態之Pb-210 與Po-210 活性垂直剖
面圖………..…..…………………………………………… 33
圖十五測站C1 顆粒態與溶解態之Pb-210 與Po-210 活性垂直剖
面圖……..…..……………………….…………………… 34
圖十六測站C2 顆粒態與溶解態之Pb-210 與Po-210 活性垂直剖
面圖……..…..……………………………………………… 35
圖十七各測站Po-210 與Pb-210 之log Kd 垂直變化…………… 39
圖十八表水Po-210/Pb-210 比值分佈…………………………….. 42
圖十九各測站之Po-210 與Pb-210 活性比值變化………….…… 43
圖二十各測站溶解態與全量Po-210 與Pb-210 之活性比值…… 46
表目錄
頁碼
表一各測站經緯度、底深及採樣航次與日期…………………… 7
表二各測站懸浮顆粒濃度(SPM) ……………………………… 19
表三各測站之Pb-210 與Po-210 活性….………………………. 25
表四懸浮顆粒、沈降顆粒及沈積物表層之Pb-210 與Po-210 活
性比較……………………………………………………… 38
表五各測站在各深度之全量Po-210 滯留時間………………… 47
表六各測站全量Pb-210 在混合層的滯留時間……….………. 50
表七浮游動物表觀Po-210 活性…………………….…………... 52
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