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研究生:張育嘉
研究生(外文):Yu-Chia Chang
論文名稱:高屏峽谷及附近海域之流場觀測
論文名稱(外文):Observations of Flow Dynamics in Kaoping Submarine Canyon
指導教授:曾若玄曾若玄引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:潮流Sb-ADCP逆上峽谷流高屏峽谷順下峽谷流
外文關鍵詞:Kaoping Submarine CanyonSb-ADCPtidal currentdowncanyon flowupcanyon flow
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為了瞭解高屏峽谷流場特性,本研究利用船碇式都普勒剖流儀(Sb-ADCP)、溫鹽深儀(CTD)、 錨碇式RCM-8海流儀及Workhorse ADCP於高屏峽谷附近海域進行流場、溫度、鹽度及潮位等觀測。Sb-ADCP及CTD監測分別於1999年9月、12月及2000年5月各兩天共三個航次進行,而定點時間序列實驗則於2000年6 ~ 7月間進行。Sb-ADCP的資料再利用最小平方法迴歸出空間分佈的淨流和M2潮流的振幅及相位等參數值進行探討。研究結果發現高屏峽谷的流場為明顯的斜壓性流場,底層流的潮流橢圓以M2半日潮流為主,越深層潮流的M2比例越大,潮流橢圓的主軸與峽谷主軸平行,漲潮時,底層為順下峽谷流,表層潮流則為東南流;退潮時,底層為逆上峽谷流,表層潮流則為西北流,而峽谷底層的水溫與鹽度變化,也是以M2週期的半日波動為主,夏季水溫的日變化可達8℃,顯示出峽谷內有內潮的存在。9月及5月峽谷表層淨流以東南流為主,可能為南海北部西南季風流的分支南下的結果,其最大流速分別約為30及50 cm/s左右,在12月的表層淨流則以西北流為主,其最大流速約為80 cm/s左右,似乎為黑潮入侵水北上所造成。總而言之,控制高屏峽谷冷水湧升的因素包含有沿岸表層流的流向、潮汐的振幅大小及季節性混合層厚度的變化(水體層化的程度),當潮汐振幅大、混合層厚度薄或峽谷表層流流向為東南流時(5月及9月),則有助於峽谷湧升流的發生。在12月當表層淨流為強勁西北流時,由於小琉球島後方尾流效應導致在小琉球北方海面出現水平尺度約7~9公里的渦漩(eddy)結構。
In order to better understand the flow dynamics of the Kaoping Submarine Canyon (KSC), this study conducted a series of field experiments to monitor the current, temperature, salinity and tide near the KSC by using shipboard ADCP, CTD and moorings of RCM-8 and workhorse ADCP. Three cruises of Sb-ADCP and CTD have been carried out in September and December of 1999 and May 2000, each lasting two days, while mooring experiment was conducted in June and July, 2000. Least-square fit was applied to the time series Sb-ADCP data of each grid to derive the amplitude and phase of M2 tidal current and the residual flow in the KSC. Our results revealed that a string baroclinic flow field was present in the KSC. Tidal ellipse of the bottom current is dominated by M2 component, with higher M2 percentage in deeper layers. The major axis of the tidal ellipse is parallel to the direction of the canyon axis. In floods, the bottom layer flows down-canyon and the surface layer flows southeastward along the coastline. In ebbs, the situation is reversed. Variations of the temperature and salinity in the bottom layer also exhibit periodic oscillation of the M2 frequency. Daily temperature fluctuation in summer can reach 8 oC, indicating the existence of internal tide in the KSC. The surface residual current flows toward the south east in September and May, with a maximum speed of approximately 30 and 50 cm/s, respectively; the result is probably due to the bifurcation of the summer monsoon flows by the southwestern coastline of Taiwan. In December the surface residual current is northwestward, the maximum speed can reach 80 cm/s. Such a northward mean flow is probably originated from branching of the Kuroshio through Bashi Channel in the winter monsoon season. To summarize, mechanisms for the upwelling event in the KSC consist of surface flow direction, tidal range, and the stratification. The upwelling event occurs more often in the KSC between May and September with the surface mean current flows southeastward or left-bounded. In December when the surface mean current flows northwestward or right-bounded, the upwelling event is rare. An eddy structure of 7 ~ 9 km length scale was observed north of Liu-Chiu Yu, a result possibly produced by Karman vortex street for strong geophysical flows behind an island.
目 錄
章次                         頁次
中文摘要 .............................................I
英文摘要 ............................................III
目錄 ................................................IV
圖目錄...............................................VI
表目錄...............................................IX
一、前言 .............................................1
二、研究區域 .........................................3
2.1 地理位置及海底地形........................3
    2.2 潮汐......................................3
    2.3 海流......................................4
    2.4 風場......................................4
    2.5 實驗目的..................................5
三、實驗設計..........................................7
    3.1 Sb-ADCP...................................7
3.2 CTD水文觀測...............................8
3.3 峽谷內外的定點觀測........................9
    3.3.1 峽谷內的RCM海流儀.......................9
    3.3.2峽谷外的底碇式ADCP......................10
四、資料分析與資料品質 ..............................12
    4.1 Sb-ADCP網格點的決定 ....................12
    4.2 Sb-ADCP淨流與潮流的解析 .................12
    4.3 Sb-ADCP的資料品質 .......................14
4.4錨碇式觀測的資料分析......................15
4.5 水文的資料分析...........................15
五、結果.............................................16
    5.1 基本潮位與海流分析 ......................16
      5.1.1 潮位...............................16
      5.1.2 錨碇式海流.........................18
      5.2 Sb-ADCP的流場 .......................20
      5.2.1潮流................................21
      5.2.2 淨流與淨流量.......................23
    5.3 水文特性 ................................24
      5.3.1 CTD................................24
 5.3.2 定點水文觀測.......................25
六、討論 ............................................28
   6.1表層淨流場與水文資料的季節性變化...........28
   6.2峽谷幾何形狀及層化參數對流場的影響........29
   6.3渦流及湧升................................31
    6.3.1渦流.................................31
    6.3.2湧升.................................32
    6.4峽谷內、外海流與水溫的相關性..............33
七、結論 ............................................35
八、參考文獻 ........................................37
附圖.............................................39
八、 參考文獻
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