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研究生:歐榮昌
研究生(外文):Rong-Chang Ou
論文名稱:人工魚礁工程行為與箱網錨碇裝置之研究
論文名稱(外文):Engineering Behavior Artificial Benthic Habitats And Analysis and Design Anchoring Design Devices for Farming Cages
指導教授:田文敏田文敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Miin Tian
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:214
中文關鍵詞:海洋大地工程箱網錨碇裝置水下聲學與光學探測沖刷坑人工魚礁
外文關鍵詞:artificial reefsthe scouring depressionfarming cages anchoring devicesunderwater acoustic and optical observation
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本研究針對台灣西南沿海人工魚礁區(枋寮、林園與永安等礁區),應用海洋大地工程學及水下聲學、光學探測等領域之原理與技術,對各礁區礁體之工程行為及箱網錨碇裝置於最大迴歸週期波浪作用下之破壞問題進行探討。最終目的在於理解各礁區散落礁體及群聚礁體間之沖刷作用隨時間變化情形,及評估枋寮礁區內以人工魚礁做為箱網錨碇裝置之可行性,並探討使箱網結構穩定之重力式錨碇裝置之初步規格。具體研究結果如下:
1.枋寮礁區:群聚礁體最大沖刷深度可達2.2m,部份散落礁體發現有被沖刷掩埋之事實,其沖刷坑已完全填平。整體而言,本礁區礁體遭受浪流、颱風浪沖刷作用僅侷限於部份散落礁體及群聚礁體外緣,礁體隨時間增加而掩埋的情形並不明顯。
2.林園礁區:部份散落礁體,在颱風浪作用下,四週呈現沖刷凹陷坑,這些沖刷凹陷坑隨沖刷時間的增加而擴大。水平沖刷凹陷範圍可達92.3m。部份礁體於沖刷過程中遭到掩埋。部份群聚礁體有隨時間增長呈現被砂漣覆蓋掩埋,再次呈現,而隨後又再被掩埋之現象。整體而言,本礁區礁體在浪流與颱風浪之沖刷作用下,將造成礁體全面且持續性之掩埋情形。部份海床表層砂質沉積物之回填作用,為造成沖刷坑內礁體被掩埋之可能成因。
3.永安礁區:永安礁區於夏季颱風浪過境時,海床表層沉積物易形成砂漣。礁體沖刷情形較枋寮礁區明顯,不同海床底質為其主要影響因子。
根據評估結果,於枋寮礁區內以傳統型人工礁體作為箱網錨碇裝置,其滑動、承載力與傾倒安全係數皆無法滿足基本工程安全要求。建議採用加裝剪力榫裝置,浸水重約28.8至37.8噸間之方形重力式錨碇裝置。相關施工與投放技術,有待進一步探討與規劃。
The purpose of this investigation was to integrate the knowledge and techniques of marine geotechnical engineering, underwater acoustic and optical observation into studying the engineering problems of artificial reefs off south-western coast of Taiwan (Fang-Liau ,Lin-Yang, Yung-An artificial reefs etc.) and the destruction of mooring system on farming cages caused by the interaction of wave-current system. The ultimate goal of this investigation was to understand the scouring activities of loosely and closely spaced artificial reefs; as well as, to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial reefs as deadweight anchoring devices for farming cages at Fang-Liau reef site. The results of this research were as follows:
Fang-Liau artificial reef site:
The maximum scouring depth can reach as deep as 2.2m around closely distributed reefs at this site. Only a few loosely deployed reefs were buried there, and the scouring depressions around these buried reefs had been filled up completely. To sum up, the behavior of scouring produced by the action of wave, current and typhoon around this site, merely limited to loosely distributed reefs, and the rim of closely distributed reefs. With the scouring time increasing, there were no obvious evidences for the burial of artificial reefs at this site.
Lin-Yang artificial reef site:
The scouring depressions around part of loosely deployed reefs expand as typhoons attacking at this site. The horizontal range of the scouring depressions can reach 92.3m in length, and parts of the reefs were buried during the process of scouring. Besides, as time went on, part of closely distributed reefs illustrated periodic variations of being buried by sediments with ripple marks, then shown up with evident height, and then buried again. To sum up, the behavior of scouring produced by the action of wave, current and typhoon around this site could cause the complete burial of the reefs. The possible procedures for the burial of reefs in the scouring depression were the actions of backfill of sandy sediments at this site.
Yung-An artificial reef site:
During summer time, especially with typhoons passed by, surficial sediments at this site were evident with mega ripple marks. The effects of scouring at this site were prominent than those at Fang-Liau reef site. The textures of surficial sediments were the major factor which induced this difference.
Based on the considerations of safety of sliding, bearing capacity and overturning, the usage of artificial reefs as anchoring devices for farming cages could not satisfy the basic engineering requirements under the action of extreme wave and current. This research suggested the usage of cubical concrete block with shear keys for anchoring devices on farming cages. The minimum buoyant weight of this block should reach 28.8 to 38.7ton. The problem regarding construction and deployment techniques of this block need further considerations.
目錄
第一章 緒論
第二章 研究區域與海洋環境概況
第三章 研究方法
第四章 沉積物分析與探測結果
第五章 實驗回顧與理論分析
第六章 人工魚礁區礁體工程現況
第七章 重力式箱網錨碇裝置設計
第八章 結論
參考文獻
附錄
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