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研究生:陳俊男
研究生(外文):Chun-Nan Chen
論文名稱:以數值方法模擬大鵬灣初級生產力之研究
論文名稱(外文):Numerical Study of the Primary Production in the Tapeng Bay
指導教授:于嘉順
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:182
中文關鍵詞:大鵬灣生地化模式潟湖優養化感潮海域數值模式
外文關鍵詞:lagoonestuarynumerical modelbiogeochemical modeleutrophicationTapeng Bay
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本研究利用三維數值模式COHERENS建立潟湖水理及生態模式,並以位於台灣西南部之大鵬灣作為研究案例,模擬大鵬灣內海流、營養鹽與浮游生物之間的動態影響與機制,並嘗試利用模式模擬的結果估算營養鹽的通量及初級生產力。
大鵬灣為一半封閉狀態之海岸潟湖(coastal lagoon),且僅有一個開口與高屏海域進行水體交換。氣候表現上,全年日照充足,夏季受西南季風的影響炎熱潮溼、冬季則溫和乾燥。在大鵬灣週圍有數條排水渠道,附近鄉鎮未經處理之家庭及養殖之廢污水經由這些排水渠道注入灣內,由於雨季集中在夏季,其他季節渠道內的流量不大,顆粒物質沈降累積在底床上,當雨季來臨時,大量雨水匯集成巨大的流量沖刷排水渠底床並將沈積已久的沈積物揚起並挾帶進入灣內,這些沈積物中包含大量的顆粒物質及營養鹽,造成灣內溫度、鹽度、生態及營養鹽的變化。大鵬灣內風平浪靜,當地許多居民在灣內從事養蚵、箱網養殖等漁業生產的工作,附近鄉鎮的漁塭養殖亦大多抽取大鵬灣內之海水做為水源,成為當地居民賴以維生的水域。但是大鵬灣受到本身地形與氣候上的影響,再加上人類活動的頻繁介入,使得大鵬灣的生態正遭受到破壞而逐漸失去平衡。
本研究關於大鵬灣的物理、營養鹽、生態及氣象等相關特性的模擬,在水理方面,除了考慮灣內海流循環受到開口潮汐的水位變化及附近城鎮放污排水入流的驅動外,並將溫鹽所引起之密度變化對海流循環造成影響納入計算;在生態方面,建立以浮游生物、碎屑有機物、溶解性營養鹽及溶氧之海洋生態系統來表現大鵬灣生態;在浮游生物方面,其生長受到水溫、光照強度及營養鹽等因素之影響;在營養鹽供應方面,假設在矽及磷供應充足情形下,以氮循環為營養鹽的主要模擬對象。藉由這些基本假設,並在邊界條件中根據季節的變化輸入不同的營養鹽濃度及溫鹽狀況;再加上不同的氣候因素,進行模擬分析。
經由系列的模擬結果顯示,大鵬灣內流場循環控制營養鹽的空間分佈,營養鹽濃度影響著大鵬灣內浮游生物生長,而供應大鵬灣內浮游生物生長所需之營養鹽來源,旱季時,潮口為最主要供應並佔主導地位,而在雨季,由於排水渠逕流量增大,使得大鵬灣內營養鹽供應變成由排水渠邊界所主導。另外,大鵬灣溶氧受到浮游生物行光合作用的強烈影響,當浮游生物快速生長的海域就會有高溶氧的產生。
最後,由浮游生物碳通量依照Nixon (1995)優養化定義比對顯示:夏季大鵬灣呈現優養化的現象,當夏季又遇到雨季來臨時,則大鵬灣呈現超優養的情形,至於冬季則大鵬灣呈現中度優養的情形。經由各項模擬結果歸納造成大鵬灣優養化的原因,是由於大鵬灣灣內流場循環不佳,加上外部營養鹽不斷的進入灣內,蓄積其中所形成。
A 3D numerical model — COHERENS has been applied to construct a coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model for studying Tapeng Bay, which is a coastal lagoon situated in southwest of Taiwan. The simulations have been carried out to study the influences and their interacting mechanisms among the tidal currents, nutrients and micro planktons in the Lagoon. Model results have been compiled for calculating the nutrient fluxes and the primary productions in the Tapeng Bay.
Tapeng Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal lagoon, which has only one tidal inlet for exchanging lagoon water with the coastal currents along the Kaoping coast on the narrow shelf in southwest of Taiwan. The study area is situated in the tropical climate zone where has sunshine through out the year except the rainy days concentrated in the summer season, which is influenced by the southwest monsoon. There are several drainage channels that collect the untreated domestic sewerage and wastewater discharged from the fish farms surround the lagoon. The discharges in these channels are usually low during the dry season. The solid contained in the water are mostly settled on the channel beds. During the raining season, high discharges due to the storm rainfalls re-suspend the sediments and carry into the lagoon. These sediments, which contain high concentrations of suspended solids and nutrients, cause the Bay water highly eutrophied. Therefore, the Bay is fully influenced by the seasonal variations. There are a lot of aquaculture, i.e. oyster farming and fish cage, in the Bay area since the water is calm and rich. But the balance between the nature and the anthropogenic disturbance is breaking.
Besides the water level variation generated from the tidal inlet, the fresh water inflow from 3 major channels are included in the model to simulate their influences to the hydrodynamics and the density driven circulation due to changing salinities and temperatures from these inlets. Plankton, detritus, dissolved nutrients and dissolved oxygen is taking into account as the model variables for this marine eco-system. The plankton growth is mainly generated due to temperature, light intensity and nutrient level. Only the nitrogen cycle has been considered in the model by assuming there are enough supply of phosphate and silicate. Model runs have been carried out according to different seasonal situations of the boundary conditions. Furthermore, climates (heats, lights, winds, etc) are also included in the model to distinct seasonal characteristics.
It is shown, from the model results, that the currents mainly dominate the distribution of nutrients in the Tapeng Bay. The nutrient level controls plankton growth. The nutrient sources are mainly coming from the coastal currents (through tidal inlet) in the wintertime, whereas the summer source was from the drainage channels due to the wash out by the high discharge rates. Beside these, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Bay water are strongly influenced by the plankton growth rate, faster the photosynthesis higher the DO concentrations.
The eutrophication levels of the Tapeng Bay water have been compiled using the plankton carbon level modeled at various situations. According to the Nixon standard (1995), Tapeng Bay has eutrophication through out the year. Mesotrophic condition can be observed during the wintertime, whereas the hypereutrophic level can be concluded during the raining season.
謝誌-----------------------------------------------------------------------------I
中文摘要----------------------------------------------------------------------II
英文摘要----------------------------------------------------------------------IV
目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------------VI
圖目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------IX
表目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------XII
第一章緒論
1-1研究緣起----------------------------------------------------------------1
1-2文獻回顧----------------------------------------------------------------1
(一)近岸海域(河口與潟湖)生地化相關研究-------------------1
(二)數值方法模擬近岸海域(包含河口與潟湖)相關研-----3
1-3研究目的----------------------------------------------------------------4
1-4研究架構----------------------------------------------------------------5
第二章 COHERENS模式介紹
2-1緒言----------------------------------------------------------------------6
2-2物理模式解說----------------------------------------------------------8
2-2-1水理控制方程式-------------------------------------------------8
2-2-2鹽度擴散傳輸方程式-------------------------------------------9
2-2-3溫度擴散傳輸方程式-------------------------------------------10
2-2-4密度方程式-------------------------------------------------------10
2-2-5日照強度----------------------------------------------------------11
2-2-6氣象因子----------------------------------------------------------12
2-3生態及沈積物模式介紹----------------------------------------------14
2-3-1無機顆粒對生態部份的影響---------------------------------17
2-3-2浮游生物部份----------------------------------------------------19
2-3-2-1溫度影響-------------------------------------------------------23
2-3-2-2浮游生物生長速度----------------------------------------23
(a)受光照強度控制下浮游生物之生長速度-------------24
(b)受營養鹽濃度控制下浮游生物之生長速度----------25
2-3-2-3浮游生物對營養鹽之吸收-------------------------------28
(a)浮游生物對硝酸氮之吸收-------------------------------29
(b)浮游生物對氨氮之吸收----------------------------------30
2-3-2-4攝食----------------------------------------------------------33
2-3-3碎屑有機物質部份----------------------------------------------34
2-3-3-1碎屑有機物質之再礦化作用----------------------------35
2-3-4溶解性營養鹽及溶氧部份-------------------------------------36
2-3-4-1好氧性硝化作用-------------------------------------------38
2-3-5無機性顆粒-------------------------------------------------------39
2-3-6顆粒物質在底床活動過程-------------------------------------39
2-3-6-1介面層-------------------------------------------------------39
2-3-6-2顆粒性物質之沈降及再懸浮作用----------------------40
2-3-6-3顆粒物質在介面層中的變化過程----------------------41
2-3-7溶解性物質在邊界通量交換情形----------------------------42
2-3-7-1底部營養鹽通量變化-------------------------------------42
2-3-7-2水體與空氣之間溶氧交換-------------------------------43
2-4生態模式中各項反應方程式----------------------------------------44
2-4-1水體部份----------------------------------------------------------44
2-4-2介面層部份-------------------------------------------------------47
2-4-3表底層之溶解性物質通量變化-------------------------------47
第三章 大鵬灣生態模式應用
3-1大鵬灣環境背景介紹-------------------------------------------------48
(一)在氣象方面------------------------------------------------------49
(二)人類活動情形---------------------------------------------------49
(三)未來展望--------------------------------------------------------50
3-2大鵬灣模式概述-------------------------------------------------------50
3-3水理模式之邊界條件--------------------------------------------------53
3-4水理模式之檢定--------------------------------------------------------55
3-5大鵬灣生態模式參數設定--------------------------------------------59
3-6各種假設狀況描述-----------------------------------------------------62
3-6-1案例A描述------------------------------------------------------62
3-6-2案例B描述-------------------------------------------------------69
3-6-3案例C描述-------------------------------------------------------70
3-6-4案例D描述-------------------------------------------------------78
3-6-5案例E描述-------------------------------------------------------79
第四章 結果與討論
4-1緒言-----------------------------------------------------------------------80
4-2大鵬灣生態模擬結果與實測資料比對與分析--------------------80
4-3寒流對大鵬灣生態模擬影響分析與比較--------------------------89
4-4降雨期間,大鵬灣生態模擬結果-----------------------------------92
4-5排水渠疏濬對大鵬灣降雨期間生態影響模擬--------------------100
4-6發生降雨事件對大鵬灣生態模擬造成的影響-------------------106
4-7冬季及夏季大鵬灣生態模擬結果分析與比較--------------------116
4-8各模擬狀況下,出入大鵬灣流量及氮通量比較----------------121
4-8-1寒流的影響-------------------------------------------------------122
4-8-2疏濬的影響------------------------------------------------------127
4-8-3降雨事件的影響-------------------------------------------------132
4-8-4各案例之基礎生產力及大鵬灣優養化情形----------------135

第五章結論與建議
5-1結論-----------------------------------------------------------------------137
5-2未來研究改善建議-----------------------------------------------------139
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------141
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