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研究生:陳宜昌
研究生(外文):Yi-Chang Chen
論文名稱:雙層分支緩衝器之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Double Level Branch Buffer
指導教授:黃宗傳
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Chuan Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:管線式架構分支預測分支損失分支目的緩衝器
外文關鍵詞:PipeliningBranch PenaltyBranch PredictionBranch Target Buffer
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:155
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  • 下載下載:9
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為提昇處理器(Processor)的執行效能( Performance),各種理論與架構不斷的被研究與討論。而自管線式(Pipelining)架構處理器的觀念被提出以來,管線式的架構已成為高速處理器的主流。理論上,管線式架構利用指令重疊的方式可以使單一處理器得到很好的效能。但是實際上在程式執行的時候,因為分支指令( Branch Instructions)需暫停(Stall)及清除(Flush)管線以得到正確的執行結果,會使得處理器的整體效能降低。
分支預測(Branch Prediction)是目前普遍用來減少分支指令所造成分支損失(Branch Penalty)的方法,這個方法是在編譯時期或是執行時期收集分支指令的資料,以便在程式執行時期用來做預測,以提高管線式架構的效能。而分支目的緩衝器(Branch Target Buffer)則是被廣泛的使用於各式的處理器,可見於目前各種商用的處理器之中。這是利用一個小的緩衝器來儲存之前程式執行的狀況,並用來預測下一步可能的執行方向。
未來的CPU發展趨勢是將管線加長以提高效能。但是當分支預測錯誤時,在管線中需被捨棄的指令數目也隨之增加,也就是會損失更多的週期時間(Cycle Time),這樣的結果可能導致增長管線的好處反而被抵銷了。因此,分支預測的準確性將扮演更重要的角色。
本篇論文主要在提出一個機制來減少分支損失和預測錯誤時的效能損失,利用雙階層組織─DBB和一些提高命中率的技巧,來增進處理器的效能。
Pipelining is the major organizational technique by which computers can execute several instructions simultaneously to reach higher single-processor performance. Branches are recognized as a major impediment to achieve the maximum performance of pipelining and superscalar processors due to stalls caused by unresolved branches. Branch prediction is an effective strategy to reduce the branch penalty via predicting, prefetching and executing the speculative instructions before the branch is resolved. A branch target buffer (BTB)[13] can reduce the performance caused by branches via predicting the direction of the branch and caching information about the branch. While prediction is incorrect, the processor requires flushing the speculative instructions, undoing the effects of the improperly initiated speculative execution and resuming on the correct path. These flushing and refilling degrade significantly processor performance.
In this thesis we propose a mechanism, Double Level Branch Buffer, which can reduce the branch penalty and performance loss caused from incorrect prediction. We try to cache the information of branch about both taken and not taken direction. The pipeline will degrade the dependence upon branch prediction accuracy by utilizing this mechanism.
目錄
第一章 導論
第二章 先前之研究
第三章 雙層分支緩衝器
第四章 效能評估
第五章 結論
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