跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.225.157) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/15 23:34
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡承融
研究生(外文):Cheng-Jung Tsai
論文名稱:在DS-CDMA通訊系統中PN碼同步程序的機制與性能分析
論文名稱(外文):PN Code Synchronization Process for DS-CDMA Communication Systems: Scheme and Performance Analysis
指導教授:陳巽璋
指導教授(外文):Shiunn-Jang Chern
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:同步展頻碼直接序列分碼多重存取
外文關鍵詞:SynchronizationPNDS-CDMA
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:389
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:24
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在使用分碼多工技術之展頻通訊系統中,展頻碼信號的同步有著非常重要的地位,也是接收端設備的重要工作之一,然而,在大部分的相關文獻中,都存在接收信號和傳送端發出之信號已達成同步的假設,使得接收機得以產生和發射端相同的信號來做進一步的信號處理與分析;另外,針對基本的展頻碼同步電路架構、機制之運作來作探討的相關文獻不多,因此,缺乏同步電路中,元件或模組的特性與運作模式之相關資訊,而無法以一個系統的角度,對展頻碼同步電路作深入的了解、運用與改良。因此,在本論文中即針對展頻碼信號的同步問題來做相關的研究。
一個展頻通訊接收系統必須透過獲取和追蹤的程序才能達到與傳送端的信號同步,在本論文中,藉由使用獲取搜尋技術取得所需的資訊,配合追蹤迴路及回授控制策略的運作,校正本地振盪器的時脈頻率,產生與接收信號匹配的本地展頻碼信號,進而達到同步的目的。
在本研究中,將針對展頻碼同步電路作電腦模擬,並針對其關鍵模組與整體架構作特性分析。在獲取程序方面,將採用串列式搜尋技術,並提出一些輔助判別法則加以搭配,來提昇同步系統的運作性能;在追蹤程序方面,則使用同調延遲鎖定追蹤迴路,並對基本特性與不同的系統參數、通道環境作進一步的模擬分析,藉由比較分析的結果,可進而在實作與改良展頻碼同步系統的時候作為參考、採用和判斷的依據。另外,則提出一個同調展頻碼追蹤迴路架構的晶片實作,並經由合成、驗證、佈局、以及最後的模擬驗證,完成下線前的所有設計流程。
PN code synchronization is a common and essential task at the receiver in CDMA communication systems. In most literatures, there usually exists assumption of synchronization between the received spreading sequence and a locally generated replica. Few practical and detail synchronization schemes are showed in literatures. Moreover, there are no sufficient knowledge about operation characteristics of loop elements and operation strategies. Hence, in this thesis we propose some schemes about PN code synchronization and then do some analysis to compare performance of those schemes in AWGN channel.
Code synchronization at DSSS receivers is performed in two steps. One is code acquisition and the other is code tracking. In acquisition process, we propose so called some “auxiliary decision criterions” in multiple-dwell detection strategies. Analytical results are validated with computer simulations. By use of auxiliary decision criterions, the acquisition process is outperforms the conventional multiple-dwell and single-dwell detection strategies in AWGN channel. In code tracking process, we use coherent DLL. Loop filter parameters are tuned by observing phase-plane trajectories to acquire stable lock points and convergence property. In addition, we proposed a coherent DLL chip implementation, and accomplish the design flow that includes verification, synthesis, place and route, and simulation.
誌謝 i
中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 iv
目錄 v
附圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒言 1
1.1 文獻探討 1
1.2 研究動機 4
第二章 展頻通訊系統中展頻碼同步程序的理論介紹與分析 6
2.1 展頻碼同步覆始程序之模型定義 7
2.2 展頻碼獲取迴路 12
2.2.1 串列式搜尋技術在可加性白色高斯雜訊下的訊號檢測 12
2.2.1.1 固定積分時間檢測法 13
2.2.1.2 多暫留時間檢測法 13
2.2.2 追蹤迴路的拉回 17
2.3 展頻碼追蹤迴路 18
2.4 電腦模擬與說明 23
2.4.1 展頻碼追蹤迴路的電腦模擬 25
2.4.2 結合展頻碼獲取和追蹤迴路的電腦模擬 36
第三章 展頻碼追蹤迴路之晶片設計實作 54
3.1 同調延遲鎖定迴路的晶片架構介紹 55
3.2 同調延遲鎖定迴路晶片之運作模擬結果 58
第四章 展頻碼同步程序的運作方案 66
4.1 判別門限的設定 67
4.2 搜尋/鎖定策略的架構 79
4.3 電腦模擬 86
第五章 結論與建議 97
參考文獻 99
索引 103
[1] R.L. Peterson, R.E. Ziemer, D.E. Borth, Introduction to Spread-Spectrum Communications, Prentice Hall, 1995.
[2] M.K. Simon, J.K. Omura, R.A. Scholtz, B.K. Levitt, Spread Spectrum Communications, vol. III, Rockville, Md. : Computer Science Press, 1985.
[3] H. Meyr, M. Moeneclaey, S.A. Fechtel, Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
[4] E.A. Sourour, S.C. Gupta, “Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Parallel Acquisition in a Fading Mobile Channel”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 38 Issue 7, pp. 992 — 998, Jul. 1990.
[5] A.C. Von Ancken, R.D. Williams, M.H. Salinas, “A coarse/fine search PN code acquisition scheme”, IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 37 Issue 1, pp. 280 — 285, Jan. 2001.
[6] J. Moon, Y.H. Lee, “Parallel Acquisition of PN Sequences in Rayleigh Fading Channel and the Application to the Multi-Carrier CDMA Systems”, 2001 12th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, vol. 2, pp. 6 — 10, Sep/Oct 2001.
[7] W.-H. Sheen, J.-K. Tzeng, C.-K. Tzou, “Effects of cell correlations in a matched-filter PN code acquisition for direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems”, IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, vol. 48 Issue 3 , pp. 724 — 732, May 1999.
[8] S.C. Jung, J.H. Kim, H.J. Choi, “Rapid PN acquisition algorithm using matched filter and data sorting method in DS/CDMA system”, IEEE VTS 50th Vehicular Technology Conference, 1999. VTC 1999 - Fall. Vol. 2 , pp. 718 — 722, 1999.
[9] B.B. Ibrahim, A.H. Aghvami, “Direct sequence spread spectrum code acquisition in mobile fading channel using matched filter with reference filtering”, IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, GLOBECOM ''93, vol. 2, pp. 1085 — 1089, 1993.
[10] H. Meyr, G. Ascheid, Synchronization in Digital Communications: vol. 1 Phase-, Frequency-Locked Loops, and Amplitude Control, John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
[11] 游豪志,「在DS-CDMA通訊系統中同調直接決定延遲鎖定迴路之PN碼追蹤」,國立中山大學電機工程學系碩士論文,中華民國90年6月19日。
[12] William F. Egan, Phase-Lock Basics, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
[13] R.F. Ormondroyd, L.A. Al-Rawas, “Effect of noise on the acquisition performance of a delay lock loop synchronizer used in CDMA applications”, Fifth International Conference on Radio Receivers and Associated Systems, pp. 134 — 138, 1989.
[14] R.F. Ormondroyd, “The acquisition performance of delay-lock loops in noise”, Sixth International Conference on Radio Receivers and Associated Systems, pp. 192 — 197, 1995.
[15] Nan-Yang Yen; Szu-Lin Su; Sheng-Cheng Hsieh, “Performance analysis of digital delay lock loops in the presence of Doppler shift”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 44 Issue 6, pp. 668 — 674, Jun. 1996.
[16] S. Kandeepan, S. Reisenfeld, “A complex envelope based 2nd order digital phase-locked loop and its performance”, ISPACS 2001, pp. 308 — 312, Nov. 2001.
[17] G.E. Corazza, A. Polydoros, “Code acquisition in CDMA cellular mobile networks. I. Theory”, IEEE 5th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, Proceedings vol.2, pp. 454 — 458, 1998.
[18] Szu-Lin Su, Nan-Yang Yen, “Performance of digital code tracking loops for direct-sequence spread-spectrum signals in mobile radio channels”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 45 Issue 5, pp. 596 — 604, May 1997.
[19] Nan-Yang Yen, Szu-Lin Su, Sheng-Cheng Hsieh, “Performance analysis of digital delay lock loops in the presence of Doppler shift”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 44 Issue 6, pp. 668 — 674, June 1996.
[20] Wern-Ho Sheen, G.L. Stuber, “Effects of multipath fading on delay-locked loops for spread spectrum systems”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 42 Issue 2, pp. 1947 — 1956, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1994.
[21] W. Huang, I. Andonovic, M. Nakagawa, “Code tracking of DS-CDMA systems in the presence of multiuser interference and additive noise”, IEEE 5th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, Proceedings, vol. 3, pp. 843 — 847, 1998.
[22] J.G.O. Moss, A.M. Street, D.J. Edwards, M.J. Mehler, “Analysis of a DS-CDMA receiver DLL architecture”, IEEE 4th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications Proceedings, vol. 1, pp. 460 — 464, 1996.
[23] A. Wilde, “Resynchronising delay-locked loop”, Electronics Letters, vol. 32 Issue 13, pp. 1172 — 1173, June 1996.
[24] F.M. Gardner, “Interpolation in digital modems. I. Fundamentals”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 41 Issue 3, pp. 501 — 507, March 1993.
[25] L. Erup, F.M. Gardner, R.A. Harris, “Interpolation in digital modems. II. Implementation and performance”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 41 Issue 6, pp. 998 — 1008, June 1993.
[26] P. Schulz-Rittich, G. Fock, J. Baltersee, H. Meyr, “Low complexity adaptive code tracking with improved multipath resolution for DS-CDMA communications over fading channels”, IEEE 6th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, vol. 1, pp. 30 — 34, 2000.
[27] G. Fock, P. Schulz-Rittich, J. Baltersee, H. Meyr, “Multipath resistant coherent timing error detector for DS-CDMA applications”, IEEE 6th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, vol. 1, pp. 278 — 282, 2000.
[28] L. Sabel, “On the performance of a low complexity baseband 2nd order delay locked loop incorporating a non-linear NCO”, IEEE 5th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, Proceedings, vol. 2, pp. 469 — 473, 1998.
[29] T.I. Laakso, V. Valimaki, M. Karjalainen, U.K. Laine, “Splitting the unit delay [FIR/all pass filters design]”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 13 Issue 1, pp. 30 — 60, Jan. 1996.
[30] A. Wilde, “On the performance of extended tracking range delay-locked loops”, 5th International Conference on Satellite Systems for Mobile Communications and Navigation, pp. 32 — 35, 1996.
[31] A. Wilde, “Mean time to lose lock for a coherent extended tracking range delay-locked loop”, 6th International Conference on Radio Receivers and Associated Systems, pp. 176 — 180, 1995.
[32] A. Wilde, “Modified delay-locked loop for fading channels”, ISSSE ''95 International Symposium on Signals, Systems, and Electronics, Proceedings, pp. 203 — 206, 1995.
[33] A. Wilde, “Extended tracking range delay-locked loop”, ICC ''95 ''Gateway to Globalization'' IEEE International Conference on Communications, vol. 2, pp. 1051 — 1054, 1995.
[34] M. Takeuchi, A. Kajiwara, M. Nakagawa, “2-mode delay lock loop for mobile communications”, Singapore ICCS/ISITA ''92. ''Communications on the Move'', vol. 2, pp. 730 — 734, 1990.
[35] J.S. Wu, M.L. Liou, H.P. Ma, T.D. Chiueh, “A 2.6-V, 44-MHz all-digital QPSK direct-sequence spread-spectrum transceiver IC”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1499 — 1510, 1997.
[36] S. Lee, J. Kim, “Effects of multiple threshold values in double dwell DS-SS code acquisition systems”, IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1 — 3, 2002.
[37] J.H.J. Iinatti, “On the threshold setting principles in code acquisition of DS-SS signals”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 62 — 72, 2000.
[38] C. Deng, C. Chien, “Interference-robust serial dual-path threshold referenced architecture for PN acquisition”, GlobeCOM 98’, 1998.
[39] Y.H. You, T.H. Moon, J.H. Kim, C.E. Kang, “Threshold decision technique for direct sequence code synchronization in a fading mobile channel”, IEE Proc.-Comm., vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 155 — 160, 1997.
[40] Z.L. Shi, P.F. Driessen, “Automatic threshold control for acquisition in spread spectrum packet radio communication”, ICC ''93 IEEE International Conference on Comm. Technical Program, Conference Record, vol. 1, pp. 478 — 482, 1993.
[41] S.G. Glisic, “Automatic decision threshold level control in direct-sequence spread-spectrum systems”, IEEE Trans. on Comm., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 187 — 192, 1991.
[42] A. Polydoros, S. Glisic, “Code synchronization: a review of principles and techniques”, IEEE 3rd International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications, IEEE ISSSTA ''94., vol. 1, pp. 115 — 137, 1994.
[43] Ziemer, Tranter, Principles of Communications: Systems, Modulation, and Noise, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
[44] Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
[45] John G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1995.
[46] T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles & Practice, Prentice Hall, 1996.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top