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研究生:陳盈州
研究生(外文):Ying-Chou Chen
論文名稱:智慧型電池充殘電器之研製
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of Intelligent Battery Charger and Residual Capacity Estimator
指導教授:陳遵立陳遵立引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzuen-Lih Chern
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:均充器殘電器數位訊號處理器充電器
外文關鍵詞:Residual Capacity EstimatorBattery ChargerDigital Signal ProcessorBattery Equalizer
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本論文設計一個以數位訊號處理器(DSP)為基礎之智慧型電池充殘電器,此系統設計串聯電路與均充器架構並採用智慧型模糊充電法對電池充電。以具有精確殘電量估測之改良式庫侖量測法對電池殘電量進行估測。由實驗結果顯示,在充電器部份可以達到6~8小時之內快速且均勻充電的目的,且因為使用智慧型模糊充電法能夠智慧地依電池電壓、電量和溫度的不同,給予不同程度的充電電流;再加上均充器能調節電池的電壓高低,所以不至於造成電池的損壞情形發生,進而保護電池;在殘電器部分則可以因為加成效應電流的計算,和電池老化因素的考慮,能準確的估測電池的殘餘容量。
This paper designs and implements a DSP based intelligent battery charger and residual capacity estimator. This system uses the proposed structure of the series circuit and battery equalizer with the intelligent fuzzy charge algorithm to charge batteries, and the improved coulometric measurement with accurate residual capacity estimation to estimate the residual capacity of batteries. Because of using the intelligent fuzzy charge algorithm can give different charging current depend on the difference of voltage, capacity and temperature of battery; And because of using the battery equalizer can adjust the voltage of battery. The charger can charge the battery safely without causing any damage. From the experimental results, the charger can achieve the purpose of fast and uniform charge with charging time six (6) to eight (8) hours, the residual capacity estimator can accurate estimate the residual capacity of batteries due to calculating the increment current and considering the aging factor.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究背景 2
1.3 研究動機與目標 3
第二章 鉛酸二次電池之簡介 5
2.1 蓄電池介紹 5
2.2 二次電池的分類 7
2.2.1 鎳鎘電池 7
2.2.2 鎳氫電池 7
2.2.3 鋰離子電池電池 7
2.2.4 鉛酸電池 8
2.3 鉛酸二次電池的基本原理 9
2.3.1 鉛酸電池內部的結構 9
2.3.2 鉛酸電池的化學原理 10
2.3.3 鉛酸電池內部Cell的連接方式 11
2.4 鉛酸二次電池的特性 12
2.4.1 鉛酸電池的壽命診斷標準 13
2.4.2 溫度補償 15
2.4.3 Amper-Hour 規則 15
2.4.4 電池的容量 16
2.4.5 電池的應用 17
2.4.6 鉛酸電池的老化 18
第三章 電池之智慧型充殘電管理 21
3.1 電池的管理 21
3.1.1 充電與放電速率 22
3.1.2 電池的充電 23
3.1.3 電池的鑑定 24
3.2 鉛酸電池的充電法則 25
3.2.1 定電流(CC)充電法 26
3.2.2 定電壓(CV)充電法 26
3.2.3 混和定電流/定電壓(CC/CV)充電法 27
3.2.4 脈衝(CP)充電法 28
3.2.5 快速充電法 29
3.2.6 智慧型充電法 31
3.3 殘電量的估測方法 35
3.3.1 內阻測定法 35
3.3.2 比重計法 36
3.3.3 開路電壓法 37
3.3.4 庫侖量測法 38
3.4 具有較精確殘電量估測之改良式庫侖量測法 39
3.4.1 電池放電電流與時間的比例關係 39
3.4.2 考慮電池放電電流的加成效應 40
3.4.3 考慮電池老化因素及診斷 45
第四章 電池充電之控制理論介紹 46
4.1 類比式模糊控制器 48
4.2 數位式模糊控制器 51
第五章 電池串聯充電之均充電路 54
5.1 為何串聯充電需要均充器 55
5.2 串聯系統均勻充電之對策 55
5.2.1 並聯/串接(Parallel/Taper)架構 55
5.2.2串聯充電/電池分流(Series Charging/Cell Shunting)架構 56
5.2.3 變壓器均充架構 57
5.2.4 電池均充架構 57
5.3 目前電池均充器之設計方向 58
5.4 電池均充器之種類 59
5.4.1 消耗性電流旁路電池均充器 60
5.4.2 非消耗性電流旁路電池均充器 60
5.4.3 雙向非消耗性電流旁路電池均充器結構 61
第六章 電池充電之功率因數修正電路 62
6.1 交換式電源供應器之功率因數修正 63
6.2 昇壓型(Boost)轉換器 64
6.2.1 昇壓式轉換器不連續導通模式之穩態分析 65
6.3 應用在PFC下的昇壓型(Boost)轉換器 67
6.4功率因數修正(PFC)的基本電路結構 70
6.4.1 功率因數修正(PFC)的輸出電壓調整 71
6.4.2 功率因數修正(PFC)的負載電流調整 71
第七章 電池充電之切換式電源供應器電路 73
7.1 推挽式電源供應器 74
7.1.1 推挽式轉換器連續導通模式(CCM)之穩態分析 76
7.1.2推挽式轉換器連續導通/不連續導通模式(CCM/DCM)
之邊界條件 79
7.1.3 推挽式轉換器不連續導通模式(DCM)之穩態分析 80
7.2 變壓器及電感繞製設計 83
7.2.1 變壓器基本原理 83
7.2.2 推挽式電源供應器之變壓器設計 85
7.2.3 濾波儲能電感繞製設計 87
7.2.3 運用磁性元件設計軟體設計變壓器及電感 89
7.3 Snubber 電路設計 90
第八章 鉛酸電池充電器實驗架構設計 92
8.1 DSP控制單元 94
8.1.1 數位訊號處理器之硬體設備 94
8.1.2 軟體控制程式設計與撰寫 95
8.1.3 DSP與電腦串列埠傳輸設計 107
8.2 TL494脈波寬度調變電路 108
8.3 功率驅動單元 110
8.3.1 電池均充器電路 110
8.3.2 功率因素修正電路 111
8.3.3 電源供應電路 113
8.3.4 閘極驅動電路 114
8.3.5 電流感測電路 116
8.3.6 溫度感測電路 116
第九章 實驗結果 118
9.1 定電壓充電實驗結果(以電阻為負載) 119
9.2 定電流充電實驗結果(以電阻為負載) 120
9.3 串聯均充實驗結果(以電量不同的電池為負載) 122
9.4 功率因素修正電路實驗結果(以電阻為負載) 124
9.5 功率因素修正電路實驗結果(以實驗電路為負載) 127
9.6 智慧型模糊充電實驗結果 131
9.7 殘電量估測實驗結果 138
第十章 結論 140
10.1 結語 140
10.2 建議事項 141
參考文獻 142
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