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研究生:謝其松
研究生(外文):Chi-Song Hsieh
論文名稱:新型低電壓低功率指數電路及可變增益放大器
論文名稱(外文):Novel Low-Voltage Low-Power Exponential Circuits and Variable Gain Amplifiers (VGA)
指導教授:高家雄
指導教授(外文):Chia-Hsiung Kao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:48
中文關鍵詞:指數可變增益放大器低電壓
外文關鍵詞:exponentialVGAlow voltage
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本論文提出了二個適用在自動增益控制迴路的新型電流模式低電壓低功率可變增益放大器之電路設計。可變增益放大器包括了指數函數電路以及電流乘法器,其中指數函數電路可分別由泰勒展開式或多項式的近似實現。整個電路均操作在次臨界區,而放大器的增益可由指數函數近似電路來控制。以0.25μm的CMOS製程技術,經由HSIPCE模擬,驗證了電路理論的可行性。


Two novel ultra-low-voltage (ULV) low-power (LP) variable gain amplifiers (VGA) are presented in this paper. These amplifiers based on complementary MOS transistors operating in weak inversion region are composed of pseudo-exponential current-to-current converters and analog multipliers. The gain of the amplifiers can be controlled by an exponential function circuit. The proposed circuits have been verified with the 0.25μm CMOS technology by HSPICE simulations. The simulation results confirm the feasibility of the proposed VGAs.


Contents
1. Introduction 1
2. Principle of Exponential Circuit Relating to VGA and AGC 2
2.1. Basic Principle of Operation 2
2.2. Design Principle of Pseudo-Exponential Function 2
3. Traditional Exponential Circuits in the Saturation Region 5
3.1 Pseudo-Exponential Function for MOSFETs 5
3.2 The Exponential Function Circuit Using A V-I Converter
and A Squarer Circuit 8
3.3 Exponential V-I Converter Using Composite NMOS 15
4. The VGAs Include Exponential Converters in the Subthreshold
Region 17
4.1. The First VGA 17
4.1.1 The Circuit Topology of Multiplier 17
4.1.2 The Exponential Current-to-Current Converter Based on
Taylor’s Series 18
4.1.3 Simulation Results 20
4.1.4 The VGA 22
4.1.5 Simulation and Results 24
4.2. The Second VGA 27
4.2.1 The Exponential Current-to-Current Converter Based on
Pseudo-Exponential Function Polynomial 27
4.2.2 Simulation Results 28
4.2.3 The VGA 31
4.2.4 Simulation and Results 33
5. Conclusion 38
References 39


References[1] Brock Barton and Massoud Pedram, “Guest Editorial Special Issue on Low Power Electronics and Design”, IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Syst. vol. 5, no. 4, pp.349-351, Dec. 1997.[2] S. Kiaei and E. G. Friedman, “Introduction to the special issue on low power wireless communications”, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 425-427, June 1997.[3] G. S. Sahota and C. J. Persico, “High Dynamic Range Variable-Gain Amplifier for CDMA Wireless Applications”, Proc. Of 1997 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, pp. 374-375,1997[4] R. Harjani, “A Low-Power CMOS VGA for 50Mb/s Disk Drive Read Channels”, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Ⅱ: Analog and Digital Processing, vol. 42, no 6, pp. 370-376, June 1995.[5] W. A. Serdjn, A. C. van der Woerd, J. Davidse, and A. H. M. Van Roermund, “A Low-Voltage Low-Power Fully Integratable Automatic Gain Control for Hearing Instruments”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 29, pp. 943-946, Aug. 1994.[6] Chunlei Shi, Yue Wu and M. Ismail, “Design of a low-power CMOS baseband circuit for wideband CDMA testbed”, Proceedings of the 2000 International Symposium, Low Power Electronics and Design, pp.222-224, 2000.[7] C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Peng and C. K. Wang, “A BiCMOS automatic gain control amplifier for SONET OC-3”, Proc. of 1995 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, pp. 103-106, 1995.[8] P. J. G. van Lieshout and R. J. van de Plassche, “A power-efficient, low-distortion variable gain amplifier consisting of coupled differential pairs”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32 no. 12 pp. 2105-2110, Dec. 1997.[9] C. C. Chang and S. I. Liu, “Pseudo-Exponential Function for MOSFETs in Saturation” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Ⅱ, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1318-1321, Nov. 2000.[10] C. H. Lin, T. Pimenta and M. Ismail, “Universal Exponential Function Implementation using Highly-Linear CMOS V-I Converters for dB-Linear (AGC) Applications” Proc. IEEE [11] W. Liu, C. C. Chang and S. I. Liu, “Realisation of Exponential V-I Converter Using Composite NMOS Transistors”, Electronics Letters, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 8-10, Jan. 2000.[12] A. Pesavento and C. Koch, “A wide linear range four quadrant multiplier in subthreshold CMOS”, IEEE International Symposium, Circuits and Syst. Vol. 2, pp. 240-243, 1999.[13] C. C. Chang and S. I. Liu, “Weak inversion four-quadrant multiplier and two-quadrant divider”, Electronics Letters, vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 2079-2080, Oct. 1998.[14] R. Fried and C. C. Enz, “CMOS parametric current amplifier”, Electronics Letters, vol. 32, iss. 14, pp. 1249-1250, July, 1996. [15] C. C. Chang and S. I. Liu, “Current-Mode Pseudo-Exponential Circuit with Tunable Input Range”, Electronics Letters, vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1335-1336, Aug. 2000.[16] J. J. F. Rijns, “CMOS Low-Distortion High-Frequency Variable-Gain Amplifier”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, no. 7, July, 1996.[17] A. Motamed, C. Hwang and M. Ismail, “A Low-Voltage Low-Power Wide-Range CMOS Variable Gain Amplifier” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Ⅱ,vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 800-811, July 1998.[18] Hassan O. Elwan and Mohammed Ismail, “Digitally Programmable Decibel-Linear CMOS VGA for Low-Power Mixed-Signal Applications”, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst. Ⅱ,Analog and Digital Signal Processing, vol. 47, no. 5, May., 2000.[19] K. Chung, G. Han and S. Kang, “A 0.35-μm CMOS Low Noise VGA”, Proceedings of the Second IEEE Asia Pacific Conference, pp. 5-8, 2000.[20] C. C. Chang, M. L. Lin and S. I. Liu, “CMOS Current-Mode Exponential-Control Variable-Gain Amplifier”, Electronics Letters, vol. 37, no. 14, pp. 868-869, July, 2001.

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