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研究生:方宏在
研究生(外文):Hung-Tsai Fang
論文名稱:台灣皮革工業競爭力之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on Competitiveness of Tanning Industry in Taiwan
指導教授:劉常勇劉常勇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-Yung Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:國際高階經營管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:競爭力工業皮革
外文關鍵詞:industrycompetitivenesstanning
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摘 要
皮革工業數十年來一直是台灣重要的傳統產業之一,所產製的皮料主要供應下游的製鞋、皮包、皮箱、皮手套、皮帶及皮沙發等等需要以皮革為原料製造各類皮革製品以供內銷或是外銷的皮革製品工廠。
台灣皮革工業最主要的鞣革原料為牛皮及豬皮,由於天然環境的限制,地窄人稠,缺乏廣大的草原而無法發展畜牧事業,因此牛隻飼養量非常的少,皮革工業所需的原料 — 生牛皮幾乎完全依賴進口;而在豬皮方面,雖然台灣的養豬事業非常發達,生產的豬肉除了供應內需市場之外,在88~89年間口蹄疫流行之前尚足以大量供應外銷,照理而言生豬皮原料應該不虞缺乏,但是由於國人消費習慣難以改變,喜食溫體豬肉,以致大部分的生豬皮皆附著在豬肉上面在市場上出售,因而失去了當製革原料的利用價值,所以台灣製革工業所需的生豬皮原料亦需仰賴進口。
既缺乏天然的製革原料,生皮所產製的皮革製品內銷市場的規模又甚小必須大量仰賴外銷,然而台灣皮革工業數十年來一直屹立不
搖,在世界上佔有舉足輕重的地位。本研究針對此點深入加以探討,台灣皮革工業雖然下游皮革製品工廠大量外移至東南亞各國及中國大陸等工資低廉的國家,但是所需要的皮料目前還是仰賴台灣的製革廠供應,所以近年來台灣皮革製品出口金額大量萎縮,但是皮料(finished leather)的出口金額較諸十年前卻成長了3倍之多,研究結果顯示台灣皮革工業的關鍵成功因素為:一、產業歷史悠久、經驗豐富;二、接近市場,具快速反應市場能力;三、進入障礙高,本地潛在競爭者的威脅少。本研究同時對於台灣製革業者提供建議以維持競爭優勢,希望對於業者有所助益。
ABSTRACT
For several decades leather industry has been one of the important traditional industries in Taiwan. The produced finished leather are mainly supplying the downstream factories for manufacturing the leather goods of shoe, handbag, suitcase, gloves, belt and upholstery etc.
The major tanning material of leather industry in Taiwan is cattle hide and pigskin. However, due to the limitations of natural environments, inabundant land, dense population and lack of vast pieces of pastures, livestock husbandry cannot be well developed. Therefore, the volume of cattle raising is very little. The material as required by leather industry — raw cattle hide almost completely relies on imports. As for the pig skin, the pig raising industry is very prosperous in Taiwan. Apart from supplying to the domestic markets to meet their needs, the produced pork was sufficient for exports in great volume, except the outbreak period of foot-and-mouth disease between 1999 and 2000. It seemed that material of raw pigskin should not be insufficient. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to change the consumption habit of the Taiwanese that they like to eat freshly-slaughtered pork so that most of the raw pigskin are attached to the pork and sold in the market. In this way, the pigskin loses its value for leather manufacturing. The material of raw pigskin as required by the leather manufacturing industry in Taiwan also has to rely on imports.
As mentioned above, there is a lack of raw material for tanning industry. And the size of domestic market of leather goods manufactured by raw cattle hide is so small that the products have to rely on export tremendously. Despite these circumstances, the tanning industry has been standing firmly in Taiwan for several decades, and occupying a outstanding position in the world. This study focuses on this issue and make further investigation. In the tanning industry of Taiwan, although many of the factories of finished leather product in the downstream have been migrated to some Southeastern Asia countries and the Mainland China where the labor cost is low, but the finished leather these factories currently need still has to rely on the supply by the tanneries in Taiwan. Therefore, in recent years, the export amount of leather goods in Taiwan has been immensely shrinking, whereas the export amount of finished leather has grown by three times when compared with the export of ten years ago. The results of the study show that the key success factors of tanning industry in Taiwan are: 1. Long history of the industry and rich experience. 2. Close to the market, with ability to respond to the market rapidly. 3. High entrance barrier brings about less threats from the local potential competitors. Meanwhile, this study gives the tanneries of Taiwan some suggestions for maintaining their competitiveness, hoping that they can be of some help to the tanning industry in Taiwan.
第一章緒論…………….1
第一節研究動機…………….1
第二節研究目的…………….5
第三節研究範圍及產業定義…………….6
第二章文獻探討…………….8
第一節競爭力之意義…………….8
第二節競爭優勢之探討…………….9
第三節策略的內涵……………11
第四節策略與競爭優勢……………13
第五節產業分析之相關理論……………17
1五力分析……………17
2SWOT分析……………18
3產業生命週期……………20
4產業價值鏈……………22
5國家競爭優勢……………25
第三章研究方法……………31
第一節研究方法……………31
第二節研究流程……………32
第三節研究架構……………34
第四節研究限制……………35
第四章台灣製革工業概況……………36
第一節前言……………36
第二節製革工業及其相關產業的關係……………37
第三節製革原料 — 牛皮……………38
1牛皮的構造……………38
2牛皮的種類……………38
3主要生產國……………40
4主要來源 — 主要牛皮生產國……………41
5皮革的製程……………43
第五章台灣皮革工業之產業分析……………45
第一節產業分類與範圍……………45
第二節產業現況……………46
1製革廠之產能……………46
2進出口貿易分析……………49
3製革廠所面臨的問題……………54
第三節競爭力分析……………57
1供應商議價能力……………57
2下游廠商議價能力……………58
3現存競爭者的威脅……………59
4潛在競爭者的威脅……………59
5替代品的威脅……………60
第四節價值鏈分析……………63
第五節SWOT分析……………67
第六節BCG矩陣分析……………68
第六章皮革工業之競爭優勢……………69
第一節競爭優勢……………69
第二節Porter的鑽石體系……………70
1生產因素……………72
2需求條件……………73
3相關及支援產業……………75
4企業策略、企業結構、同業競爭……………75
5機會……………76
6政府……………78
7小結……………79
第七章結論與建議……………81
第一節研究結論……………81
第二節研究建議……………83
1對於台灣皮革工業的發展策略建議……………83
2對業者的建議……………85
3對後續研究者的建議……………86
參考文獻…………... 87
中文參考文獻……………87
英文參考文獻……………88
1陳奭奇環境管制措施對台灣製造業競爭力的影響國立台灣大學碩士論文,民85年2經濟部國際貿易局網頁www.moeaboft.gov.tw3經濟部工業局網頁www.moeadb.gov.tw4製革常識台灣區皮革工業同業工會19865企業競爭優勢方至民民89年6行政院主計處網頁www.dgbasey.gov.tw7鞋類設計暨技術研究中心網頁www.shoenet.org.tw8中華民國期刊論文索引影像系統網頁www2.read.com.tw9吳思華策略九說麥田出版社,199610司徒達賢策略管理199511許士軍管理學東華書局,1981英文參考文獻 — 1Trade Practices for Proper Cattle hide Deliver Published by Tanner’s Council of America, Inc.2U.S. Leather Industries Statistics Published by Leather Industries of America Inc.3Fas Online — Hides and Skins www.fas.usda.gov4Aaker, D.A., “Managing Assets and Skills: The Key to a Sustainable Competitive Adantage”, California Management Review Winter, 19895Charles W. L. Hill & Gareth R. Jones策略管理學,黃營杉譯, 19966Maidique M.A. and Path P. (1982) “Corporate Strategy and Technological Policy”7Miller, D. (1986) “ Configurations of Strategy and Structure”8Porter M.E. “ Competitive Advantage” New York” Free Press, 19809Weihrich, Heinz (1982), The SWOT Matrix
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