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研究生:陳躍升
研究生(外文):Yue-Sen Chen
論文名稱:利用砂箱實驗探討電動力-Fenton法處理受酚污染土壤
論文名稱(外文):Treatment of Phenol-Contaminated Soils by Combined Electrokinetic-Fenton Process
指導教授:楊金鐘楊金鐘引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:178
中文關鍵詞:Fenton法土壤污染整治電動力電極極性轉換
外文關鍵詞:Soil ContaminationElectrode Polarity ReversePhenolFenton ProcessElectrokinetic ProcessRemediation
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本研究係利用尺寸為60 cm×30 cm×30 cm(長×寬×高)之砂箱實驗模擬電動力現地處理受酚污染之土壤。土體分為飽和層及未飽和層,進行20天之電動力實驗,藉由不同電場條件、轉換電極極性、電極槽添加Fenton試劑等操作條件,探討在電動力過程中及處理後土體相關參數、電場及污染物殘留等的分布情形。研究結果發現,在不進行電極極性轉換的電動力實驗組中,其陽極槽液pH值在施加電場2 ~3天後即降至2左右,陰極則上升至12左右,此現象持續至實驗終了;於轉換電極極性的實驗中,陽、陰極槽液的pH值變化則較不明顯(陽極槽液pH 4、陰極槽液pH 11)。
由陰、陽電極兩端間之土體孔隙水pH值變化得知,不論於定電壓或定電流系統中,電動力反應進行過程陰、陽極端產生之鹼、酸鋒會隨時間增加而各自往土體另一端方向移動,且初期鹼鋒移動速度較快而酸鋒移動速度較慢,惟實驗結束後,不論飽和層或未飽和層,其中段土體仍呈中性,並未受到酸、鹼鋒明顯的影響。
於定電壓(50 V)、不進行電極極性轉換的操作條件下,電動力或電動力-Fenton的實驗進行過程中,土體相對於陰極之電壓差變化於反應初期約呈線性關係,而後隨處理時間增加而呈非線性關係;而在電極極性轉換的實驗中,由於在酸、鹼鋒形成電阻極化之前便進行電極極性轉換,因此,並無明顯的電壓差變化。
於定電壓或定電流系統之電動力處理過程中,未飽和層土壤之含水率雖受到毛細現象影響而升高,但由於其土體並未直接與電極槽液接觸,電動力工法之電滲透效應對未飽和層的土壤含水率影響相對較小,導致反應後未飽和層之含水率反而較反應前為高,由25.34%上升至30%左右。在電滲透流率大小方面,由於轉換電極極性的實驗中,在兩電極槽皆可收集排出液的情況下導致其電滲透流量最大,於定電壓及定電流操作下,其電滲透係數分別為6.42×10-6 cm2/V‧s及9.47×10-6 cm2/V‧s。其次為沒有添加酚於土壤中之實驗組,其電滲透係數為3.27×10-6 cm2/V‧s,由此可知,污染物的存在的確會阻礙電滲透流的傳輸。至於添加Fenton試劑之電動力實驗組的電滲透係數則較未添加Fenton試劑之實驗組為大,定電壓下其電滲透係數分別為1.59×10-6 cm2/V‧s及9.45×10-7 cm2/V‧s,定電流下則分別為2.31×10-6 cm2/V‧s及9.50×10-7 cm2/V‧s。在處理效率方面,不論於定電壓或定電流系統中皆以電動力-Fenton法實驗組最佳,酚的總破壞去除率分別為78.06%及80.11%,其次為不添加Fenton試劑之電動力實驗組,總破壞去除率分別為69.92%及71.38%,而電極極性轉換實驗組之總破壞去除率則較不理想,僅62.34%~64.30%。造成轉換電極極性的實驗組效果不佳之原因,可能係由於電動力對於酚之破壞效應小於酚受電滲透移除效應影響之故,酚在未移出土體之前即由於轉換電極極性而導致停滯於土體中,此結果可由轉換電極極性的實驗組實驗後土體中段土壤中酚殘餘量高於其他段土體而知。
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficiency of phenol contaminated soils by electrokinetic (EK) process conducted in sand boxes (60 cm×30 cm×30 cm; L×W×H). The electric field strength, electrode polarity reverse, and Fenton reagent were employed as the experimental factors in this study to assess the variations of soil characteristics, potential difference, and residual phenol concentration distribution during a treatment period of 20 days and after the treatment. It was found that the anode reservoir pH decreased to around 2 and the cathode reservoir pH increased to approximately 12 after 2~3 days of treatment in the no electrode polarity reverse system. However, the variation of pH in the anode and cathode reservoirs was less obvious in the case with electrode polarity reverse.
No matter a constant potential system or a constant current system was employed, a general trend of a lower pH at the anode reservoir and a higher pH at the cathode reservoir would be found. The acid front generated at the anode reservoir flushed across the soil specimen toward the cathode and the base front advanced toward the anode. However, in the central region of sand box, unsaturated and saturated soil specimen maintain neutral.
For EK or EK-Fenton experiments, under the constant potential conditions, the potential difference relative to the cathode versus the distance from anode was found to have a linear relationship at the beginning of the electrical potential application. As the treatment time elapsed, the potential gradient became non-linear. Nevertheless, there was no remarked potential gradient change in the case with electrode polarity reverse.
Although capillarity has resulted in an increase of the moisture content of unsaturated soil (from 25.34% to 30% after 20 days), electroosmotic (EO) flow was not obvious in the unsaturated zone.
For the experiments with electrode polarity reverse, they had a much greater EO flow quantity, the electroosmotic permeability coefficients for constant potential and constant current systems were 6.42×10-6 cm2/V‧s and 9.47×10-6 cm2/V‧s, respectively. It was also found that the existence of contaminants did reduce the EO flow quantity.
Regardless of the employment of a constant potential or constant current system, the maximum destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of phenol was obtained for EK-Fenton process. The maximum DRE values of phenol for both constant potential and constant current systems were found to be 78.06% and 80.11%, respectively. However, the DRE of phenol was found to be much lower for the system with electrode polarity reverse. It was postulated that the destruction efficiency of phenol was less obvious than the removal efficiency in the electrode polarity reverse system. In addition, a frequent reverse of electrode polarity also resulted in a frequent change of EO flow direction. Thus, a flow hysteresis of phenol in the soil compartment was found.
目 錄
頁次
謝誌i
摘要ii
Abstractiv
目錄vi
表目錄ix
圖目錄x
第一章 前言1
1.1 研究緣起1
1.2 研究目的5
1.3 研究內容5
第二章 基本理論與文獻回顧6
2.1 酚之基本性質及危害性6
2.2 酚於土壤中之傳輸機制與吸附特性10
2.3 電動力法之相關理論11
2.3.1 電動力法傳輸及反應機制11
2.3.2 電動力法之極化現象13
2.3.3 電動力法之影響因子14
2.3.4 電動力法的優點16
2.4 電動力法處理污染物之相關研究18
2.4.1 電動力法處理有機污染物之相關研究及案例18
2.4.2 電動力法二維模場之相關研究19
2.4.3 電動力法結合其它方法之相關研究20
2.5 Fenton法之反應機制22
第三章 實驗材料、方法與架構32
3.1 實驗材料32
3.1.1 土樣來源與前處理32
3.1.2 試藥及材料32
3.2 實驗設備36
3.2.1 電動力法處理系統36
3.2.2 其它儀器設備38
3.3 研究架構40
3.4 土壤樣品基本性質分析44
3.4.1 pH值44
3.4.2 含水份44
3.4.3 比重45
3.4.4 有機物含量47
3.4.5 灼燒減量47
3.4.6 陽離子交換容量47
3.4.7 粒徑分析48
3.5 人工污染土配製及砂箱裝填50
3.5.1 人工污染土配製程序50
3.5.2 污染土砂箱裝填程序50
3.6 電動力反應前後及過程分析51
3.6.1 電動力處理前後分析51
3.6.2 電動力處理過程監測分析52
第四章 結果與討論54
4.1 土壤樣品基本性質分析54
4.1.1 pH值54
4.1.2 含水份54
4.1.3 比重54
4.1.4 有機物含量54
4.1.5 灼燒減量54
4.1.6 陽離子交換容量54
4.1.7 粒徑分佈55
4.1.8 比表面積 56
4.2 定電壓-電動力法處理受酚污染之土壤57
4.2.1 電動力處理過程分析57
4.2.2 電動力處理後分析67
4.3 定電壓-電動力-Fenton法處理受酚污染之土壤73
4.3.1 電動力處理過程分析73
4.3.2 電動力處理後分析83
4.4 定電壓-電動力法-電極極性轉換處理受酚污染土壤89
4.4.1 電動力處理過程分析89
4.4.2 電動力處理後分析98
4.5 定電流-電動力法處理受酚污染土壤104
4.5.1 電動力處理過程分析104
4.5.2 電動力處理後分析111
4.6 定電流-電動力-Fenton法處理受酚污染之土壤117
4.6.1 電動力處理過程分析117
4.6.2 電動力處理後分析123
4.7 定電流-電動力法-電極極性轉換處理受酚污染土壤129
4.7.1 電動力處理過程分析129
4.7.2 電動力處理後分析135
4.8 綜合討論141
4.8.1 電極質量變化141
4.8.2 電滲透流探討143
4.8.3 處理效率探討145
4.8.4 經濟效益評估147
第五章 結論與建議150
5.1 結論150
5.2 建議153
參考文獻154
附錄 實驗數據167
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