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研究生:黃添成
研究生(外文):Tien-Chen Hwaung
論文名稱:水下雷射掃瞄量測系統CCD攝影機之校正
論文名稱(外文):Calibration of CCD Camera for Underwater Laser Scanning System
指導教授:王兆璋王兆璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chau-Chang Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海下技術研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:水下量測系統攝影機校正雷射雷射掃瞄線
外文關鍵詞:Underwater Scanning SystemCalibration of CameraLaser ScanningLaser
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
  • 點閱點閱:730
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:130
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本論文之研究目的在於校正水下雷射掃瞄量測系統之CCD攝影機。對於量測水下結構之表面外形尺寸,可利用雷射掃瞄線投射在待測物表面上;當從斜視角觀測時,若待測物表面高度不一,掃瞄線會有斷線或變形的現象。斷線之高低位差愈大表示該區的高度落差愈大。用 CCD 擷取影像後,經過影像處理就可換算斷面之尺寸。
CCD 攝影機在鏡頭周圍會有光學的扭曲,CCD 屏幕的密度也會有不均勻的現象。此外,對於實際應用上,攝影機的3D 位置和方位都會影響到畫面的擷取。所以要用雷射掃瞄線來做斷面尺寸量測時,首先就要將CCD 鏡頭校正過。以往在機器視覺的應用上,CCD 鏡頭的校正都使用一個具有十多個參數的數學方程式來描述攝影機的非線性現象。在本文我們用一塊有50 mm 間隔的網格校正板,並用線性、二次最小平方差及 Cubic Spline 來描述網格,並且借用地球投影製圖的觀念,以內差方式建立圖素座標與幾何座標之關係來達到 CCD 攝影機校正的目的,我們也選擇數種不同尺寸、形狀的物體進行雷射掃瞄量測的實驗,以檢驗 CCD 校正的效果。並進行濁度實驗以瞭解濁度對量測影像之影響。實驗結果顯示這一個方法校正過的 CCD 攝影機在以雷射掃瞄量測時,誤差大致可控制在 3 \% 下。
To estimate the correct dimension of the target on the underwater, we can use CCD camera and cast laser light strip onto the target, and then observe the displacement of laser light to get the dimension. Since the laser light will show on different situation, it''s due to the surface of the target is not smooth. When we get the image from CCD camera, we need to calibrate the displacement of the laser light and return to the actual dimension of the target on the underwater.
We know the optical distortion and non-linearity of the CCD camera will influence to get the correct image, also the location of camera is. That''s the reason we need to calibrate the camera first. It was a mathematical way to explain the calibration of CCD camera non-linearity before.
On this subject, we lay vertical and horizontal grid lines of 50 mm span on an acrylic plate. These grid lines are same as the longitudes and latitudes of the map. We estimate the target with the pair of interpolated longitude and latitude same as to be used to estimate the location of the point in the world coordinate
system. And choose some targets with different size and form to use to verify the approach. By the way, we also test if there is any influence for the clear of water. The results indicate the error is under 3 \% when we catch the image on the underwater by a calibrated CCD camera.
第一章 緒論
第二章 校正原理
第三章 實驗架設
第四章 實驗結果分析
第五章 結語
附錄
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Timo Piironen, Olli Silven and Esko Strommer, "Automated Visual Inspection of Rolled metal Surfaces ," Proc. of Machine Vision and Applications , pp. 247--254, 1990.
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Anna M. Crawford and Alex E. Hay,"A Simple System for Laser-Illuminated Video Imaging of Sediment Suspension and Bed Topography ," Proc. of IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 23, Issue : 1, pp.12--19, Jan. 1998.
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Donna M. Kocak, Frank M. Caimi, Partha S. Das and Jeffery A. Karson," A 3-D Laser Line Scanner for Outcrop Scale Studies of Seafloor Features ,"Proc. of OCEANS ''99 MTS/IEEE. Riding the Crest into the 21st Century , Vol. 3, pp. 1105--1114, 1999.
Vivek A. Sujan and Steven Dubowsky,"The Design of 3-D Surface Geometry Acquistion System for Highly Irregular Objects:with Application to CZ Semiconductor Manufacture ,"Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation, Vol. 2, pp. 951--956, 1999.
Hsin-Hung Chen and Chia-Ju Lee, "A Simple Underwater Video System for Laser Tracking ,"Proc. of OCEANS 2000 MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition , September 11-14, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Vol. 3, pp. 1543--1548, 2000
Tom Ditto, "Compact 3D Profilometer with Grazing Incidence Diffraction Optics ," in Proc. of 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling, pp. 73--80, 2001.
Janne Heikkila,"Geometric Camera Calibration Using Circalar Control Points ," in Proc. of IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 22, NO. 10, pp. 1066--1077, 2000.
Rosalyn Graham Snyder,"The Bionic Tailor:TC''s 3-D Body Scanner ,"IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine ", pp. 56--59, 2001.
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