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研究生:陳淑雅
研究生(外文):Shu-Ya Chen
論文名稱:護生健康促進衛生教育及體適能活動之成效探討
論文名稱(外文):The effect of health-promoting education and physical exercise
指導教授:葉美玲葉美玲引用關係陳興夏陳興夏引用關係高淑芬高淑芬引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立台北護理學院
系所名稱:護理研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:健康促進衛生教育體適能自覺健康狀態自覺健康控制健康行為自我效能健康活動支持系統健康促進生活方式
外文關鍵詞:health-promoting educationphysical fitnessperceived health statusperceived health controlself efficacysocial support systemhealth-promoting lifestyle
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本研究旨在設計並評價健康促進課程及體適能活動對健康促進生活方式及體適能之成效。採類實驗型研究設計,以北部某護專高職部165位學生為研究對象,分為實驗組(一)、實驗組(二)及對照組。實驗組(一)及(二),皆接受13小時的健康促進衛生教育,實驗組(一)同時執行八週的體適能活動,對照組則不接受任何相關課程。介入措施提供前後,三組均接受前後測。測量工具包括人口學變項表、自覺健康狀態、自覺健康控制、健康行為自我效能、健康活動支持系統、健康促進生活方式量表、七日身體活動紀錄表、教學活動過程評價表及健康體能檢測。本研究結果的主要發現為:
一、年齡、父母教育程度、家中運動器材及設備與健康促進生活方式及運動行為間皆無統計之顯著相關;健康問題與營養及壓力處理之間、母親健康狀態與靈性成長之間皆呈統計之顯著負相關;父親健康狀態與活動量之間、住家附近運動場所與身體活動之間皆呈統計之顯著正相關。
二、自覺健康狀態與營養呈統計之顯著正相關。健康促進生活方式、運動行為與自覺健康控制間無顯著相關,但與健康行為自我效能間呈統計之顯著正相關。健康活動支持系統與健康促進生活方式呈統計之顯著正相關。
三、介入措施實施前後,三組各自的體育課外運動次數及持續時間皆達統計之顯著差異。此外,實驗組(二)的運動強度亦達統計之顯著差異。介入措施實施後三組間的體育課外運動次數、強度及持續時間皆具有統計之顯著差異。
四、介入措施實施前後,實驗組(一)之整體健康促進生活方式及健康責任、身體活動、營養、靈性成長、人際關係等得分皆達統計之顯著差異,且除了健康責任及營養外,其進步情形皆顯著優於對照組。實驗組(二)之整體健康促進生活方式及身體活動、靈性成長層面達統計上顯著差異,且身體活動進步情形顯著優於對照組。對照組除了健康責任、身體活動、壓力處理的得分略微增加外,其餘皆減少。
五、介入措施實施後,實驗組(一)一分鐘仰臥起坐的表現屬「特優」,實驗組(二)屬「優」,對照組屬「好」,實驗組(一)的進步情形顯著優於另兩組。實驗組(一)與(二)坐姿體前彎顯著進步至75%,對照組至70%。實驗組(一)立定跳遠進步至60%,實驗組(二)至55%,對照組則停留在50%。實驗組(一) 800公尺跑走進步至55%,實驗組(二)至50%,對照組退至45%。實驗組的腰臀圍比有顯著改善且優於對照組。肺活量增進為實驗組(一)大於(二)大於對照組。
六、實驗組對健康促進衛教課程及體適能活動的實施,大多數表示認同且有助益。
本研究結果可提供規劃健康促進衛生教育、培養個人規律運動習慣及體適能活動的參考。建議未來的研究在本研究的基礎下,可從提昇自我效能,加強健康責任、壓力處理等行動策略,以增進護生的健康促進行為。
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of health-promoting education and physical fitness exercise on health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) and physical fitness. A quasi-experimental design was used. The 165 subjects from a nursing junior college were divided into experiment groupⅠ, experiment groupⅡ and control group. The experiment groups accepted 13 hours of health-promoting education , and the experiment groupⅠpracticed 8 weeks of physical fitness exercise, while the control group was untreated in either way. The instruments were completed before and after receiving instruction, including social-demography, general health perception subscale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, Self-Rated Abilities for Health Practices Scales, social support system scales, Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, 7-day physical activity record, teaching evaluation, and physical fitness test. The main results found in this study were:
1.Age, parents’ education status, and home equipment of exercise were not significantly related to HPL and physical activity. The health problem was negatively related to either nutrition or stress management. The health status of mother was also negatively related to spiritual growth. There was significantly positive correlation among father’s health status and energy expenditure or environmental facilities of physical activity.
2.The perceived health status was positively related to nutrition. The perceived health control was not significantly related to HPL or physical activity. Both self-efficacy and social support were positively related to HPL.
3.After intervention, there was significant difference on frequency and duration of exercise in each group. There were significant differences on frequency, duration and intensity of exercise among three groups.
4. After intervention, there were significant improvements on HPL, health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth and interpersonal relation. They were significantly better than those of the control group except for health responsibility and nutrition. The experiment groupⅡ had significant improvements on HPL, physical activity, and spiritual growth, and also significantly better than the control group on physical activity. The control group had lower mean scores of HPL except for health responsibility, physical activity, and stress management.
5. After intervention, the experiment groupⅠreached to ”super excellence”, the groupⅡ to” excellence”, and the control group to” good” in the 1-minute flexed leg sit-up. Both experiment groups elevated to 75% significantly in the sit-and- reach, while the control group reached to 70%. The experiment groupⅠreached 60% , the groupⅡ reached 55%, and the control group reached 50% in the standing broad long jump. The experiment groupⅠelevated to 55%, the groupⅡ elevated to 50%, and the control group decreased to 45% in the 800-meter run-walk. The intervention can significantly decrease the waist-to-hip ratio of experiment groups, which was significantly better than the control. The experiment groupⅠwas significantly better than the group Ⅱ and control group in the percent of forced vital capacity.
6. Most of the adolescents in the experiment groups were interested in the intervention activities and thought these activities were useful and helpful.
This study provides the basis of health-promoting educational programs, building up the regular exercise habits and physical fitness exercise. Based on the results, this study suggests that efforts to improve the HPL of the nursing students should focus on enhancing self-efficacy, health responsibility and stress management.
目 錄 頁數
誌 謝………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………………IV
目 錄………………………………………………………………………VI
圖表目次………………………………………………………………………VIII
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機及重要性……………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的………………………………………………………… 4
第三節 研究問題………………………………………………………… 5
第四節 研究假設………………………………………………………… 5
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 健康促進生活方式……………………………………………… 6
第二節 Pender健康促進模式…………………………………………… 8
第三節 健康促進生活方式與人口學因素、自覺健康狀態、自覺健康
控制、健康活動支持系統、健康行為自我效能的關係………14
第四節 衛生教育與健康促進生活型態……………………………… 19
第五節 體適能 ………………………………………………………… 21
第六節 體適能相關研究…………………………………………………29
第七節 體適能與健康促進生活方式……………………………………35
第八節 學生與健康促進及體適能的關係………………………………37
第三章 概念架構
第一節 概念架構…………………………………………………………42
第二節 名詞解釋…………………………………………………………43
第四章 研究方法
第一節 研究設計…………………………………………………………45
第二節 研究對象及研究場所………………………………………… 45
第三節 研究工具…………………………………………………………46
第四節 研究工具之信、效度檢定………………………………………55
第五節 資料收集過程……………………………………………………56
第六節 資料處理與分析…………………………………………………57
第五章 研究結果
第一節 研究對象基本資料分析…………………………………………59
第二節 健康促進生活方式與人口學變項、自覺健康狀態、自覺健康控制
、健康行為自我效能、健康活動支持系統之相關性分析………………63
第三節 健康促進衛生教育結合體適能活動對健康促進生活方式之影響成效66
第四節 學生對健康促進衛生教育之教學評價與心得…………………………83
第六章 討論
第一節 研究對象的基本資料特性………………………………………………89
第二節 人口學變項、自覺健康狀態、自覺健康控制、健康行為自我效能、
健康活動支持系統與健康促進生活方式之相關性……………………90
第三節 健康促進衛生教育結合體適能活動對健康促進生活方式影響的成效92
第四節 學生對健康促進衛生教育課程之教學評價……………………………101
第七章 結論與建議
第一節 結論.……………………………………………………………………104
第二節 研究的限制與建議…………………………………………………… 106
參考資料
中文部分…………………………………………………………………………… 111
英文部分…………………………………………………………………………… 120
附錄
附錄一「健康有氧運動」錄影帶光碟輔助教材原創者允用同意書…………… 136
附錄二 研究同意書…………………………………………………………………137
附錄三 健康促進生活方式問卷……………………………………………………138
附錄四 七日身體活動紀錄表………………………………………………………148
附錄五 健康體能紀錄單……………………………………………………………150
附錄六 各單元教案…………………………………………………………………152
附錄七 教學評量表…………………………………………………………………168
圖表目錄 頁數
圖2-1 Pender健康促進模式修正版…………………………………………………13
圖3-1健康促進衛生教育及體適能活動與健康促進生活方式之關係……………42
圖4-1研究設計圖……………………………………………………………………45
表4-1各量表之信度…………………………………………………………………55
表5-1研究對象年齡之分布及差異情形……………………………………………59
表5-2研究對象個人特質之分布及差異情形………………………………………60
表5-3父母親的教育程度及健康之分布及差異情形………………………………61
表5-4研究對象家庭背景之分布及差異情形………………………………………62
表5-5實驗組的人口學變項與後測之健康促進生活方式之相關性分析…………63
表5-6實驗組的自覺健康狀態、自覺健康控制與後測之健康促進生活
方式之相關性分析……………………………………………………………64
表5-7實驗組的健康行為自我效能、健康活動支持系統與後測之健康
促進生活方式之相關性分析…………………………………………………65
表5-8體育課外的運動次數、強度及持續時間之分布及差異情形………………68
表5-9體育課外的運動次數、強度及持續時間前後測之卡方檢定分析…………69
表5-10健康促進生活方式之得分情形、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析 70
圖 5-1 健康促進生活方式前後測配對t檢定………………………………………70
表5-11健康責任之得分情形、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析………… 71
表5-12身體活動之得分情形、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析………… 71
表5-13營養之得分情形、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析……………… 72
表5-14靈性成長之得分情形、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析………… 73
表5-15人際關係之得分情形、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析………… 73
表5-16壓力處理之得分情形、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析………… 74
圖5-2 健康促進生活方式各分量表之前後測差………………………………… 74
表5-17三組之健康促進生活方式得分指標……………………………………… 75
圖5-3相對活動量前後測配對t檢定……………………………………………… 76
表5-18三組之平均一天相對體能活動量及絕對體能活動量的平均值、
配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析………………………………………76
圖5-4 絕對活動量前後測配對t檢定………………………………………………77
表5-19三組身體組成之檢測結果、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析…… 78
圖5-5 身體組成之前後測配對t檢定…………………………………………… 78
表5-20肌力、肌耐力之檢測結果、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析 ……79
表5-21三組柔軟度之檢測結果、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析……… 80
表5-22立定跳遠檢測結果、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析……………80
表5-23心肺耐力檢測結果、配對T檢定及前後測差的變異數分析……………82
表5-24體能檢測與台閩地區高中女學生體適能常模之比較結果………………83
表5-25實驗組在各單元活動喜歡程度與幫助程度之平均值與標準差…………84
表5-26實驗組在各單元活動喜歡程度之分布情形………………………………85
表5-27實驗組在各單元活動幫助程度之分布情形………………………………85
表5-28實驗組學生對健康促進衛生教育課程之整體評估………………………87
表5-29實驗組學生教學評量意見表………………………………………………88
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