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研究生:林尚武
研究生(外文):Lin, Shang-Wu
論文名稱:身體狀態限制對兒童靜態平衡動作控制的發展效應
論文名稱(外文):The Development Effects of Standing Control in Children under Individual Constraint
指導教授:陳重佑陳重佑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chung-Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣體育學院
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:生物力學動作發展平衡控制年齡差異個體限制疲勞
外文關鍵詞:biomechanicsmotor developmentbalance controlage differenceindividual constraintfatigue
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動作發展的動態系統觀點強調動作的發展是由環境、工作及個體三個次系統交互影響所產生。本研究的主要目的即是透過短時期強度高的全身性疲勞運動,產生身體疲勞狀態的個體限制,以了解身體疲勞狀態對於不同年齡之中晚期兒童平衡控制型態的影響。本研究以8歲、10歲及12歲男童各5名為實驗參加者,個別在Kistler垂直跳躍反應板上接受連續原地垂直跳躍的無氧運動處理,直到無力再跳為止,並用Kistler垂直跳躍反應板檢查實驗參加者接受疲勞運動處理的效果。疲勞運動處理前後分別透過Catsys 2000平衡穩定測量系統、Biovision多通道多功能訊號處理系統(包含電子關節角度計及傾斜計),記錄實驗參加者完成1分鐘開眼單足靜態站立平衡動作時的生物力學參數變化特徵。統計方法是以混合設計二因子變異數分析進行年齡差異與個體限制前後的比較(α=.05),並以Duncan法進行事後比較。結果發現不同年齡兒童在疲勞狀態下,軀幹矢狀面及額狀面角速度變異性、壓力中心擺動速度及矢狀軸擺動距離,均比疲勞前大(p<.05)。各關節平衡控制的工作特徵方面,疲勞前不同年齡兒童在各關節角速度變異性並無顯著差異(p>.05);但是在疲勞狀態下,8歲組兒童髖關節矢狀面角速度變異性(9.17 ± 1.49deg/s)顯著高於10歲組兒童(6.08 ± 0.33deg/s)(p<.05);而10歲組兒童的踝關節額狀面角速度變異性(14.57 ± 4.70deg/s)則顯著高於8歲組(9.38 ± 2.12deg/s)及12歲組兒童(9.60 ± 1.54deg/s)(p<.05)。此一結果說明,兒童靜態平衡控制表現受個體疲勞狀態限制的影響,不同年齡的兒童在疲勞狀態下,均產生較大的身體擺動情形。雖然不同年齡兒童在疲勞狀態前之平衡控制型態並沒有不同,然而在疲勞狀態的個體條件限制下,不同年齡兒童顯現出不同的平衡控制型態,而其中更出現平衡控制發展的階段性改變現象。
From the aspect of the dynamic systems theory, the development of motor control is affected by the interaction of three subsystems, namely, task, environment, and individual. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age difference of the strategies of balance control in middle/late children under individual constraint of fatigue through instant and intense exercise for the whole body. Five volunteer boys for each age group (8-, 10-, and 12-year-old) served as participants in this study. Every participant was asked to perform continuous counter movement jump on a Kistler Quattro Jump Platform monitoring the fatigue index until no more jump could be performed. Before and after the fatigue treatment, the biomechanical characteristics were recorded by a Catsys 2000 Sway Force Plate system and a Biovision system with electrogoniometers and inclinometers during the one minute period in which each participant performed one foot standing balance movement with eyes open. Mixed-design two-way ANOVA and Duncan’s test were adopted to analyze the statistical differences for developmental effects and before/after fatigue treatment with an alpha level of .05. The results showed that the variability of angular velocity (VAV) for trunk inclination, the centre of pressure (COP) sway velocity, and the COP anteroposterior sway displacements significantly increased (p<.05) under the post-fatigue condition. For the balance control characteristics of lower extremity, there were no significant age differences for VAV at the hip, knee, and ankle joints under the pre-fatigue condition (p>.05). Nevertheless, under the post-fatigue condition, the VAV at the hip in the sagittal plane for the 8-year-old children (9.17±1.49deg/s) was observed to be significantly greater than that for the 10-year-old children (6.08±0.33deg/s) (p<.05). It is further noted that under the same post-fatigue condition, the 10-year-old group exhibited a prominent increase in the activity at the ankle over the other 2 groups, as seen in the highest VAV at the ankle in the frontal plane (14.57±4.70deg/s) compared to that of the 8-year-old group (9.38±2.12deg/s) and the 12-year-old group (9.60±1.54deg/s) (p<.05). The findings indicated that middle/late children were affected by the fatigue constraint to exhibit an increase in body sway. With regard to the balance control characteristics at different joints, however, though under the pre-fatigue condition it seemed of no obvious difference among the three age groups, there did exist age differences in the balance control patterns under the fatigue constraint. This study demonstrated that fatigue, an individual constraint, could induce phase shift in the development of standing control.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………...ii
謝誌……………………………………………………………………..iii
目錄………………………………………………..……………………iv
表目錄…………………………………………………..……………...vii
圖目錄………………………………….…………….……………….....x
第壹章 緒論……………………………………………….…1
第一節 問題背景………………………………………….……1
第二節 研究目的與假設………………………………….……4
第三節 名詞解釋及操作型定義……………….………………5
第四節 研究範圍與限制………………………….……………8
第五節 研究的重要性……………………….……………..…..9
第貳章 文獻探討…………………………………………...10
第一節 理論基礎---動態系統觀點………….…….……..…...10
第二節 平衡控制的感覺系統與策略…………………….…..14
第三節 疲勞對動作表現影響的相關研究…………………...22
第四節 兒童平衡控制發展的相關研究……………………...27
第五節 疲勞對平衡能力之影響的相關研究………………...34
第六節 本章總結……………………………………………...36
第參章 研究方法與步驟………………………….………..38
第一節 實驗參加者…………………………………………...38
第二節 實驗時間與地點……………………………………...39
第三節 實驗儀器與設備……………………………………...40
第四節 場地佈置……………………………………………...43
第五節 實驗步驟……………………………………………...44
第六節 資料的收集與處理方法……………………………...46
第七節 統計方法……………………………………………...51
第肆章 結果與討論………………………………………...52
第一節 壓力中心動力學特徵之差異……………………….. 52
第二節 軀幹角速度變異性之差異…………………………...56
第三節 不同關節角速度變異性之差異……………………...57
第四節 討論…………………………………………………...61
第伍章 結論與建議……………………………….………..68
第一節 結論…………………………………………………...68
第二節 建議…………………………………………………...70
引用文獻………………………………...……………………71
中文部份………….………………………………………….….71
外文部份………………….…………………………….……….72
附錄I:疲勞前後壓力中心各參數的統計結果……………………...81
附錄II:疲勞前後軀幹傾斜角速度變異性參數的統計結果.………84
附錄III:疲勞前後不同關節角速度變異性參數的統計結果……....85
附錄IV:參與研究家長(監護人)同意書……………….………...89
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