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研究生:王玉琳
研究生(外文):Wung-lin Wang
論文名稱:自我教導策略、合作學習和增強系統合併使用對安置在融合教育情境中之輕度智障學生課室適應行為之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Combined Using Self-Instructional Strategies, Cooperative Learning and The Reinforcement System to Adapt Behaviors of aStudent with Mild Mental Retardation in The Inclusion Setting
指導教授:傅秀媚傅秀媚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shiou-mei Fu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺中師範學院
系所名稱:國民教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:自我教導策略合作學習增強系統融合教育輕度智能障礙
外文關鍵詞:Self-Instructional StrategiesCooperative LearningReinforcement SystemInclusion SettingMild Mental Retardation
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:48
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本研究選取一名就讀於普通班的輕度智障學生為研究對象,目的在探討經過自我教導策略、合作學習和增強系統合併使用的訓練教學課程之後,受試者在書包掉在地上的發生率、外套掉在地上的發生率、手提袋掉在地上的發生率與桌面不乾淨的發生率等這四個目標行為是否得到改善。研究效果以受試者每階段的行為發生的百分率為指標,對家長及資源班老師的訪談則作為參考。
本研究屬於準實驗研究,採單一受試之跨行為多基線實驗設計,實驗處理分為基線期、處理期和維持期。基線期不給予任何處理,在處理期的不同階段分別介入增強系統以及自我教導策略、合作學習和增強系統合併使用的訓練課程,維持期只做觀察記錄,整個研究實施共為期三個多月,包括十個單元的實驗教學,最後採圖示法進行視覺分析法。
整個研究情境皆以受試者所就讀的班級為範圍,在研究處理期間以班級為單位,以生活教育為目標,以自我教導策略、合作學習和增強系統合併使用之課程為主要內容來教導學生,探討安置在普通班之一名輕度智障學生課室適應行為之改善情形。本研究所介入的自我教導策略內容包括自我覺察、認知重建(歸因再訓練、加強自我效能和改變的決心),教學方式包括引導思考、逐步退除、遊戲、角色扮演及製作提示卡等。合作學習方式包括互相鼓勵、觀摩、提醒、同儕指導和良性競爭,增強系統包括社會性增強、物質、代幣和活動性增強。
研究結果顯示不論是介入增強系統或是自我教導、合作學習和增強系統合併使用的訓練課程對受試的問題行為皆具有效果,受試者的四項行為目標趨向皆具有持續效果,而且是呈下降的趨向:書包掉在地上的發生率維持在5 % 以下、外套和手提袋掉在地上的發生率皆維持在10 % 以下、桌面不乾淨的發生率維持在17.5 %以下。但研究效果的穩定性隨目標行為的不同而異,除了書包掉地上的發生率較穩定外,其餘三項目標行為的表現都相當不穩定,這可能是因為在自然情境下此實驗效果會受到實驗對象的身心因素、學校課程安排與上課型態的影響,是本實驗難以避免之處。
The subject of this study was a student with mental retardation at a regular classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate that whether the four target behaviors: the satchel-dropping incidence, the coat-dropping incidence, the tote bag-dropping incidence and the incidence of massing up the desk were improved after using the training curriculum which combined self-instructional strategies, cooperative learning and the reinforcement system. The ratio of every phase was the indication while the interviews with parents and resource teachers were references.
A multiple-baseline-across-behaviors experimental design was used in this study. There were baseline, treatment and maintain phases. During baseline there was no any treatment. The training curriculum combined self-instructional strategies, the reinforcement system and cooperative learning was taken during the treatment phase. Observation and recording were taken during the maintain phase. The study lasted for 3 months including 10 units of experimental teaching and the data were analyzed by graphic display and visual analysis.
To investigate the improvement of the target behaviors, the training curriculum was provided to the subject while the class as the unit and the lining education as the goal. The contents of the self-instructional strategies were self-awareness, cognitive restructuring. The contents of instruction were thinking-by-guiding, fading, games, role playing and flash cards. Cooperative learning included peer support, emulating, prompt, peer tutoring and positive competition. The reinforcement system included social, material, token and activity reinforcement.
The result of the study revealed that all target behaviors were improved and could be lasted after intervening the reinforcement system or the training curriculum. The satchel-dropping incidence was under 5 %, the coat- dropping incidence was under 10 %, the incidence of messing up the desk was under 17.5 %. The stability of the target behaviors was unstable exclusive of the satchel-dropping incidence. That might be resulted from the subject, the curriculum and the setting.
目 次
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅲ
目次 Ⅴ
表次 Ⅶ
圖次 Ⅷ
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的與研究問題 5
第三節 名詞釋義 6
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 智能障礙學生的特質與安置 11
第二節 自我教導策略的理論與研究 26
第三節 合作學習的理論與研究 39
第四節 增強系統的理論與研究 49
第五節 自我教導策略、合作學習和增強系統合併使用的理
論與研究 57
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究步驟 63
第二節 單一受試實驗設計 65
第三節 對個案的質化研究 75
第四節 自我教導策略、合作學習和增強系統合併使用的課程 78
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 觀察信度分析 83
第二節 探討自我教導策略、合作學習和增強系統合併使用
對安置在 融合教育中的智能障礙學生課室適應行為
之影響效果 85
第三節 處理成效之社會效度 96
第四節 研究者實驗教學的心得 101
第五節 綜合討論 104
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 106
第二節 建議 113
第三節 研究限制 115
參考書目
中文部分 116
英文部分 120
附錄
附錄一 家長同意書 129
附錄二 同儕提名表 130
附錄三 行為觀察評量記錄表 131
附錄四 回饋問卷表 132
附錄五 回饋增強累計表 135
附錄六 課程內容 136
附錄七 愛整潔契約單之一 145
附錄八 目標行為發生次數及百分比記錄表 146
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