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研究生:廖芳碧
論文名稱:圖形溝通訓練對低功能自閉症者溝通能力影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Influence of Picture Communication Training on the Communicating Ability of the Primary Level Autistic
指導教授:朱 經 明 博 士
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺中師範學院
系所名稱:國民教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:自閉症者圖形溝通訓練圖形溝通訓練
外文關鍵詞:AutisticPicture Communication TrainingCommunicating
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:63
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本研究旨在探討圖形溝通訓練對增進低功能自閉症者溝通表達能力,改善其溝通行為及減少不適當溝通行為之成效。研究對象為三名無口語或具有仿說能力和具有辨識簡單圖形能力之自閉症者,三位各有不同的不適當溝通行為。本研究進行前,個案並未接受圖形溝通訓練,以改善其溝通行為及減少不適當溝通行為。
研究採用單一受試實驗設計中的跨受試多探試實驗設計。自變項為圖形溝通訓練,其圖卡係選自個案日常生活中需要表達的功能性非口語圖片。依變項是個案溝通行為與不適當溝通行為出現的次數。教學實驗地點在教室內,於上午教學時間抽出三十分鐘進行圖形溝通訓練和觀察紀錄,每名個案先後接受基線期和處理期的實驗處理,處理期之後的兩週進行五次追蹤期觀察紀錄。
本研究的資料蒐集方式是以攝影機拍攝實驗過程,事後以溝通行為觀察紀錄表紀錄。蒐集之資料以單一受試實驗設計之視覺分析,依其不適當溝通行為、圖形溝通行為出現次數畫出曲線圖,列表考驗各階段內和階段間不適當溝通行為及圖形溝通行為的變化趨勢,再採用簡化時間序列分析法的C統計輔佐視覺分析,以考驗各階段內和階段間資料點變化趨勢,是否達顯著水準。並以教師意見調查問卷內容分析,作為本研究的社會效度。
綜合本研究結果發現:
一、圖形溝通訓練對低功能自閉症者不適當溝通行為出現次數有明顯減少之成效。
二、圖形溝通訓練對低功能自閉症者圖形溝通行為出現次數有明顯增加之成效。
三、圖形溝通訓練有維持低功能自閉症者圖形溝通行為出現次數的水準。
四、教師皆肯定圖形溝通訓練的價值,認為個案因表現圖形溝通行為減少不適當溝通行為的出現,進而穩定情緒、增強學習動機、強化學習效果、改善同儕與師生間關係。實驗之後,教師皆認為願意繼續使用圖形溝通訓練,增加學生溝通能力。
The purpose of the study is to explore the effect of Picture Communication Training (PCT) in enhancing the primary level autistics’ expressing ability, improving their communicating behaviors, and reducing inapt communicating performance. The subjects of the study are autistics who are speechless, or able to imitate other’s speech, and able to identity basic pictures. Each of them presents different inapt communicating behaviors.
The study adopts single subject research design. The independent variables is PCT. The pictures are chosen from functional and non-speech graphics necessary for everyday expression. The dependent variables is the frequency of the subject’s communicating and inapt communicating behaviors. All observation and experiment take place in classroom. Every morning’s teaching time is appropriated 30 minutes for picture communication training and recording observation. The subject of each case accepts the experimental treatment of “basic line period” and “processing period” one by one. Two weeks after the “processing period” comes the “tracking period” in which the subject accepts recording observation for 5 times.
The method of data collection is through recording the experimental process with the help of video camera. The data are took down in the recording forms of communicating behavior observation, and analyzed in single subject research design. Curve is given according to the frequencies of inapt communicating behaviors and graphic communicating behaviors. List is also given to test the changing trend inside and between stages. The social validity of the study is set according to the analysis of the questionnaires collected from teachers.
According to the outcome of the study, we find that:
1. PCT apparently reduces the appearing frequency of the primary level autistic’s inapt communicating behavior.
2. PCT obviously enhance the appearing frequency of the primary level autistic’s communicating behavior.
3. PCT does maintain the level of appearing frequency of the primary level autistic’s graphic communicating behavior.
4. Teachers keep positive attitude toward the significance of PCT. They think the subject of each case performs graphic communicating behaviors and thus reduces the appearance of inapt communicating behaviors. This enables the subject to calm down, to improve learning motivation, to strengthen learning effect, and to improve the relationship among peers and between themselves and teachers. After the experiment, teachers are all willing to keep on using PCT in order to enhance students’ communicating ability.
目 次
第一章  緒論…………………………………………………
第一節 研究動機……………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題………………………………4
第三節 名詞詮釋……………………………………………5
第四節 研究架構……………………………………………7
  
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………9
第一節 圖形溝通訓練的內涵與運用………………………9
第二節 自閉症兒童語言發展………………………………19
第三節 自閉症兒童溝通行為發展特質……………………35
第三章  研究方法……………………………………………43
第一節 研究對象……………………………………………43
第二節 研究設計……………………………………………53
第三節 研究步驟……………………………………………59
第四節 研究工具……………………………………….62
第五節 資料分析……………………………………….65
第四章  結果分析……………………………………………71
第一節  不適當溝通行為資料分析…………………………72
第二節  圖形溝通行為資料分析……………………………86
第三節  教師意見調查資料結果分析………………………96
第五章  結論與建議…………………………………………103
第一節  摘要…………………………………………………103
第二節  討論…………………………………………………106
第三節  結論…………………………………………………109
第四節  研究限制……………………………………………110
第五節  建議…………………………………………………111
參考文獻
中文部分…………………………………………………………113
英文部分…………………………………………………………115
附錄
附錄一 自閉症兒童溝通行為評量表…………………………121
附錄二 自閉症兒童社會行為評量表…………………………125
附錄三 增強物調查表…………………………………………129
附錄四 溝通行為紀錄表(一)………………………………130
附錄五  溝通行為紀錄表(二)………………………………131
附錄六 教師意見調查問卷…………………………………..132
附錄七 家長同意函……………………………………………133
附錄八 老師同意函……………………………………………134
表 次
表2-1以功能性溝通訓練溝通為基礎的行為處理策略歷年來相關研究..15
表2-2 自閉症兒童特徵與圖形溝通系統特徵之比較…………………….18
表 2-3 自閉症兒童與正常兒童語言發展過程……………………………32
表 2-4 語言和溝通發展特徵………………………………………………41
表 3-1 觀察者間信度………………………………………………………66
表4-1個案甲乙丙不適當溝通行為出現次數階段內變化分析摘要表……74
表4-2個案甲乙丙不適當溝通行為出現次數相鄰階段間變化分析摘要表79
表4-3個案甲在基線期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表…………………80
表4-4個案甲處理期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表……………………81
表4-5個案甲追蹤期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表…………………..81
表4-6個案乙在基線期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表…………………82
表4-7個案乙在處理期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表…………………82
表4-8個案乙在追蹤期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表…………………83
表4-9個案丙在基線期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表…………………83
表4-10個案丙在處理期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表……………….84
表4-11個案丙在追蹤期不適當溝通行為內容次數變化表……………….84
表4-12個案甲乙丙圖形溝通行為出現次數階段內變化分析摘要表…….88
表4-13個案甲乙丙圖形溝通行為出現次數相鄰階段間變化分析摘要表.91
表4-14個案甲在處理期圖形溝通行為提示系統記錄分析表…………….93
表4-15個案乙在處理期圖形溝通行為提示系統記錄分析表…………….94
表4-16個案丙在處理期圖形溝通行為提示系統記錄分析表…………….94
圖 次
圖3-1個案甲教室上課場所…………………………………………………56
圖3-2個案乙教室上課場所佈置…………………………………………..56
圖 3-3個案丙教室上課場所……………………………………………….57
圖4-1個案甲乙丙基線期處理期追蹤期不適當溝通行為出現次數曲線圖72
圖4-2個案甲乙丙基線期處理期追蹤期圖形溝通行為出現次數曲線圖分析...........................................................87
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王芳琪(民86)。以溝通為基礎的行為處理策略對極重度智能障礙學生不尋常說話行為之效果研究。高雄師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文。
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