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研究生:簡美玲
研究生(外文):Chien Meiling
論文名稱:貴州東部高地苗人的情感與婚姻
論文名稱(外文):Marriage and Sentiment among the Highland Miao in Eastern Guizhou, China
指導教授:李亦園李亦園引用關係何翠萍何翠萍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Prof. Li Yih-yuanHo Ts''ui-p''ing
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:人類學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:人類學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:303
中文關鍵詞:情感婚姻親屬個人社會
外文關鍵詞:sentimentmarriagekinshipindividualsocialityMiao
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在貴州東部高地苗人社會,並行著以表述異性結伴情感為主的游方、情歌與交表婚。在苗人部份地區,此一特點依舊是當前的社會理想與實際,且有長期文獻的基礎。基於此民族誌特性,論文由重視情感的角度描述、探討高地苗人以異性結伴為主的情感與交表聯姻的內容,及兩者所展現情感與結構的曖昧。論文對苗研究的意義,在於:情感的探討可能是掌握高地苗人,作為一文化主體的新方向。過去,對苗人婚姻富情感特性的描述或討論,通常未脫離以漢為中心,關於可能展現苗文化價值的苗之情感與婚姻,還有相當空間需描述與討論。對於人類學的意義,本文一則經由苗人異性結伴的情感內容,銜接人類學對浪漫愛情的討論,再者通過游方、緩落夫家與私奔婚,所展現情感與結構之曖昧,探討個人與社會的關聯。
第一章描述情感天地的社會性與個人性,說明時、空、人,表現「年輕人」情感天地的專屬、邊緣與全社會價值,以及異性相伴的個人情感內容。第二章描述歌與情感。情歌以兩類異性伴交錯並置,與兩顆心的情感內涵,來展現對情感與婚姻的戲謔。相對於「年輕人」的情感天地,交表婚姻則具體展現在婚禮的交換、稱謂體系,與村寨對聯姻的理想與實際。第三章以婚禮交換的物,來表述家與家締結的策略;以新娘的工作、姊妹伴及緩落夫家期間的禁忌與禮物往來,來表達社會界線區辨與模糊的結群倫理。第四章描述稱謂與結群理想:間接稱謂的緊密與濃縮,表達交表婚的指定性;直接稱謂則以說話者焦點的變動,來展現子嗣繁衍的理想。第五章描述、討論多重表述的交表聯姻,與村寨內外婚的對比,是為建立一個理想村寨。第六章則是以不顧家與村寨理想的私奔婚為例,說明聯姻理想的壓力與個人價值的相互對峙,經由情感、情緒的衝突而呈顯。
總之,本文指出,高地苗人為情感開闢特定的空間、時間以及物的交換。情感對於他們生活的意義,不僅在個人層面,也有集體的層面。而在婚姻交換、游方、緩落夫家等習俗與物的連結關係,表達為結群所採的婚姻策略,與情感並無一對一的對應關係。又從情歌的戲謔,以及父母送出門的婚姻與私奔婚的並行,可知在高地苗人長久以交表婚為結群策略的歷程中,情感有其不可忽略的位置。
The dissertation finds that the idea of “romantic love” can be a useful construct outside of Western literature. The Miao, a pre-industrial people of the Chinese Highlands, are shown to demonstrate the two competitive values of romantic love: individual sentiments versus collective martial institutions. Among the highland Miao people of eastern Guizhou, not only are institutional courtship and cross-cousin marriage the social ideal, but they are also the current social practice. This social practice has been in existence among the written work of Han elite since the 17th century. Based on the above ethnographical features, the dissertation will first describe the contents of the marriage institutions and individual sentiments, then explore the unnecessary causality between of them, and finally demonstrate their places within the social formation. This study of the Miao demonstrates the potential value of future study on sentiment and perception of subjectivity in Miao culture.
Most of the data analyzed in the study was based on the author’s observation of one Miao village in eastern Ghizou. This observation involved interviewing and recording of an intensive ethnographical field-work over a period of 15 months. First, the work concludes that the highland Miao people establish a specific space, time and gift exchanges for individual sentiment. The meaning of individual sentiment for the highland Miao people exists within both the personal, individual dimension and within the collective dimension. Second, the diverse associations among gifts and marital customs, such as the marriage exchanges, courtship, and natolocal post-marital residence, show that there is no a causal relation between marital strategy and individual sentiment. Third, the sentiment and joking expressed in the love song and the open marriages in parallel with elopements suggest that the individual sentiment should not be neglected during the historical process when the cross cousin marriage has been conducted as the primary strategy for social grouping over a long period of time.
摘要 i
致謝辭ii
目次與圖表次iv
苗文聲韻調與國際音標vi
親屬稱謂代碼vii
導論1
第一章 情感天地:以游方為例 34
第二章 歌與異性結伴的情感 82
第三章 婚禮的交換與結群策略119
第四章 稱謂與交表結群理想162
第五章 交表聯姻與理想村寨 193
第六章 村寨理想的違背:私奔婚的情感與結構 232
結論 情感天地與複雜的基本結構 247
附錄:「年輕人」的對歌文本 263
參考文獻 290
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