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研究生:張紹文
論文名稱:足底壓力及小腿不舒適之改善評估─以無塵鞋為例
指導教授:王茂駿王茂駿引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工業工程與工程管理學系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:足底壓力無塵鞋小腿工作負荷EMG心搏量測儀壓力片搬運作業
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摘 要
半導體廠中作業人員因為長時間的站立及頻繁的搬運作業,小腿及足部的負荷相當大。長時間的累積,造成小腿、足部不舒適的情形。因此本研究即針對作業員人員小腿、足部不舒適的問題,分為兩個階段來探討。第一階段是進行問卷調查與工作抽查,問卷調查主要是確認半導體廠中不舒適情形較嚴重的區域及造成不舒適的原因。再透過工作抽查,掌握作業員一天中從事各種作業的時間及行走步伐數。第二階段是針對無塵鞋設計部分進行的實驗評估,利用EMG、心搏量測儀、壓力片等儀器,藉以找出降低作業員小腿工作負荷及足底壓力的無塵鞋設計型式。
綜合研究結果,提出三個針對作業員小腿、足部不舒適問題的改善建議。1. 整體無塵鞋的設計,在評估了三種無塵鞋之後,找出了一種較佳的無塵鞋設計特性。至於鞋墊方面,首先必須要考慮作業員走路及站立的時間很長;為了降低足跟的負荷,有必要加強鞋底的吸震設計。另外,為了增加舒適性,建議考慮提供對足弓能有效支撐的鞋墊。2.鼓勵作業員多利用推車來搬運晶圓,以減少徒手搬運晶圓的次數、距離。3.在不影響生產動線的前提下,可考慮增設座椅,提供暫時性的休息,降低小腿及足部不舒適。

Ergonomic Evaluation and Improvement of Lower Extremities Fatigue and Plantar Pressure
Abstract
In semi-conductor fabrication, operators had a lot of workload in their shank and foot because of long-term standing and frequency handling operation. As a result, for a long term, operators in fabrication felt uncomfortable in their shank, ankle, and foot. Thus, this research proposed a serial studies on problems of uncomfortable lower extremities, and separated all process in two parts. Firstly, proposed investigation with questionnaire, and it could confirm what work sections that have the most serious problems and its causes through such investigation. Besides that, the work sampling study would be proposed in the next in fabrication. That could help to know well how much time do they spent and how many steps in all kinds of work types in their whole day working. An experiment was conducted to compare different cleanroom shoes and insoles with EMG, Polar heart rate detector , Fuji pressure film and so on, and it would find out the appropriate design of cleanroom shoes to avoid or decline workload or fatigue of the lower extremities.
Research results indicated that operators should use trolley as possible as they could to move wafer, and it would be better to provide a short break for they with more chairs if possible. Statistical results also indicated that cleanroom shoes and its insole were critical factors. According to experimental results, one of experimental cleanroom shoes had higher performance than the others, so its design concept would be recommended. About insole design, there was a lot of loading on heel considered with long-term standing and walking, so it would be recommended to add absorbing design like running shoes. To increase foot comfort, the arch support design of cleanroom shoes would be a great idea.

目 錄
摘 要………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
誌 謝………………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
目 錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究背景…………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究動機……………………………………………………………1
1.3 研究目的……………………………………………………………2
1.4 研究步驟……………………………………………………………2
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………3
2.1 引言………………………………………………………………3
2.2 長久站立及行走…………………………………………………3
2.3 長久站立及行走所產生的問題…………………………………4
2.4 關於長久站立及行走的改善建議………………………………5
2.5 足部疾病之探討……………………………………………………6
2.6 鞋子對下肢的影響………………………………………………8
2.7 鞋墊設計及對下肢的影響………………………………………9
2.8 評估不同鞋子對下肢肌肉骨骼的方法………………………12
第三章 實驗流程與方法………………………………………………………….14
3.1 受試者………………………………………………………...16
3.2 實驗設備……………………………..……………………….17
3.3 研究流程……………………………………..……………….22
3.3.1 實驗前問卷調查……………………..…………………..22
3.3.2 工作抽查…………………..……………………………...22
3.3.3 實驗評估…………………………………………………..25
3.3.4 實驗流程圖……………………………...……………….25
3.4 實驗設計………………………………...…………………….27
第四章 研究結果………………………………………………………29
4.1 實驗前問卷……………………………...……………………29
4.1.1 作業員每日晶圓搬運次數、距離、須經樓層數…………30
4.1.2 工作後感覺精疲力竭之頻率………………...…………31
4.1.3 一年內曾感覺不舒適的部位…………….…………..…31
4.1.4 足部不舒適……………..…………………….…………32
4.1.5 無塵鞋……………………………………………...……33
4.1.6 第一階段問卷結果討論………………………...………38
4.2 工作抽查………………………...……………………………39
4.2.1不同區域各種作業所佔的時間比例及平均總步伐數……40
4.2.2不同作業員間的比較………………………………………41
4.2.3不同作業員三十分鐘內步伐數比較………………………43
4.2.4不同時段行走步伐數比較…………………………………45
4.2.5 工作抽查結果討論………………………………………47
4.3實驗結果…………………………………………………………48
4.3.1 壓力片…………………………………………………………48
4.3.2 小腿肌電訊號分析結果…………………………………53
4.3.3 心搏率分析結果…………………………………………57
4.3.4 主觀問卷分析結果……………………………………………60
第五章 結論………………………………………………………………………65
參考文獻………………………………………………………………68
附件一(實驗前問卷調查)…………………………………………….72
附件二(實驗問卷)……………………………………………………75
圖目錄
圖2-1 鞋子的基本結構…………………………………………………8
圖3-1 工作區域人數分佈圖…………………………………………14
圖3-2 無線肌電訊號傳送器配戴情形………………………………17
圖3-3 無線肌電儀接收設備…………………………………………17
圖3-4 心搏率量側儀…………………………………………………17
圖3-5 富士壓力感應片---感應前…………………………………17
圖3-6 富士壓力感應片---感應後…………………………………18
圖3-7 跑步機………………………………………………………18
圖3-8 晶圓盒及鐵塊…………………………………………………19
圖3-9 三種無塵鞋……………………………………………………19
圖3-10 三種鞋的鞋底…………………………………………………20
圖3-11 紐巴倫(New balance)……………………………………….20
圖3-12 伯肯(Birken)…………………………………………………21
圖3-13 主觀問卷中劃分的足部區域…………………………………21
圖3-14 實驗流程圖……………………………………………………23
圖4-1 各工作區域的人數分佈圖…………………………...……27
圖4-2 各區域作業員每日平均晶圓搬運次數…..………………28
圖4-3 作業員每日平均晶圓搬運次數…………………...………28
圖4-4 各區域平均每次搬運距離……………………………………29
圖4-5 作業員平均每次搬運距離……………………………………30
圖4-6 各區域每次晶圓搬運須經樓層數………...…………………30
圖4-7 工作後感覺精疲力竭之頻率…………………...……………31
圖4-8 一年內曾感覺不舒適的位……………………………………32
圖4-9 足部不舒適部位之平均分數……………………………….33
圖4-10 無塵鞋造成的不舒適感覺…………………………………34
圖4-11 無塵鞋造成的不舒適感覺…………………………………35
圖4-12 穿著無塵鞋時可能發生的問題……………………………36
圖4-13 無塵鞋不舒適的可能原因…………………………………37
圖4-14 無塵鞋應改善的部位………………………………………38
圖4-15 不同區域各種作業所佔的時間比例………………………40
圖4-16 不同區域平均總步伐數……………………………………40
圖4-17 不同作業員在各種作業下所佔的時間比例(1)…………41
圖4-18 不同作業員在各種作業下所佔的時間比例(2)…………42
圖4-19 不同作業員在各種作業下所佔的時間比例(3)…………42
圖4-20 不同作業員在各種作業下所佔的時間比例(4)…………43
圖4-21 不同作業員三十分鐘內平均總步伐數(1)………………44
圖4-22 不同作業員三十分鐘內平均總步伐數(2)………………44
圖4-23 不同作業員三十分鐘內平均總步伐數(3)………………45
圖4-24 各時段行走平均總步伐數(1)……………………………45
圖4-25 各時段行走平均總步伐數(2)……………………………46
圖4-26 各時段行走平均總步伐數(3)……………………………46
圖4-27 各時段行走平均總步伐數(4)……………………………47
圖4-28 壓力片中搬運動作的效應………………………………50
圖4-29 壓力片中無塵鞋因子的效應……………………………50
圖4-30 壓力片中鞋墊因子的效應………………………………51
圖4-31 壓力片加總後無塵鞋效應………………………………52
圖4-32 壓力片加總後鞋墊的效應………………………………53
圖4-33 EMG中搬運作業的效應…………………………………54
圖4-34 EMG中無塵鞋的效應……………………………………55
圖4-35 EMG中鞋墊的效應………………………………………55
圖4-36 EMG中無塵鞋與鞋墊的交互作用………………………56
圖4-37 心搏率中搬運作業的效應………………………………58
圖4-38 心搏率中無塵鞋的效應…………………………………58
圖4-39 心搏率中鞋墊的效應……………………………………59
圖4-40 主觀問卷中搬運作業的效應……………………………62
圖4-41 主觀問卷中無塵鞋的效應………………………………62
圖4-42 主觀問卷中鞋墊的效應…………………………………63
表目錄
表3-1 實驗變項…………………………………………………………25
表4-1 壓力片ANOVA分析………………………………………………49
表4-2 壓力片加總ANOVA分析…………………………………………51
表4-3 EMG ANOVA分析…………………………………………….…53
表4-4 EMG中鞋墊的Duncan test……………………………………54
表4-5 心搏率ANOVA分析………………………………………….…57
表4-6 心搏率中無塵鞋之Duncan test……………..………………59
表4-7 主觀問卷 ANOVA 分析…………………………………………61
表4-8 主觀問卷中無塵鞋之Duncan test……………………………63
表4-9 主觀問卷中鞋墊之Duncan test……………………...……64
表4-10主觀問卷ANOVA加總分析……………………………………64

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