跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.233.217.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/17 21:38
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李翔詣
研究生(外文):Hsiang-Yi Lee
論文名稱:半球型反光路面標記夜間視覺效度之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study on the Nighttitme Visibility Effectiveness of Hemisphere Retrorefelctive Pavement Marker
指導教授:游志雲游志雲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Yunag Yu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工業工程與工程管理學系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:反光路面標記視覺閾值駕駛安全交通工程
外文關鍵詞:Retrorefective markervisual thresholddriving safetytraffic engineering
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:237
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究在於探討夜間駕駛情況下半球型反光路面標記的視覺效度。多年來,角錐型反光路面標記一直被用來提昇夜間路面標線的可見度。角錐型的反光強度很高,但其反光係數隨著入射角增加而大幅降低,導致可見度變差,因此,彎路上的視覺效度值得進一步探討。近年來,新型的反光路面標記,半球型反光路面標記被導入交通工程應用。由於其反光係數與入射角無關,因此被認為可能比較適合在彎道上使用。本研究目的在於探討半球型反光路面標記的在彎路上的夜間視覺效度,並與角錐型的效度做一比較。
本研究分為實地實驗與視覺效度評估兩個階段。實地實驗探討兩種反光路面標記在一個典型的小半徑彎道的視覺效度。視覺效度評估則是利用實地實驗的結果來推估兩種標記在各種不同半徑的彎道上的視覺效度。
實地實驗包含兩個試驗,第一個試驗探討半球型反光路面標記對不同車型的前視效度。第二個試驗探討兩種反光路面標記對不同車型的相對優勢。視覺效度的兩個效標為前視效度與相對優勢。前視效度指的是反光路面標記可見距離與安全駕駛所需的前視距離的比較,相對優勢指的是兩種反光路面標記可見距離的比較。第一個試驗共有32輛車參與,其中包含22輛轎車與10輛卡車。第二個試驗有1輛轎車與5輛卡車參與,均由第一個試驗中挑選。實驗在一個U型道路進行來模擬彎道上左彎與右彎的駕駛狀況。受試者的工作是在駕車由直線道轉入彎道時偵測目標反光路面標記。實驗的結果顯示,不管何種車型,兩種反光路面標記在30公尺彎道均具有足夠的視覺效度。其中,半球型的視覺效度又較角錐型為佳。
視覺效度評估的目的在於預估兩種反光路面標記在交通部規範的8種彎道上的視覺效度。首先利用實地實驗的結果來推導視覺偵測閾值,結果顯示兩種反光路面標記的視覺閾值無顯著差異,但兩種轉彎方向的視覺閾值有顯著差異。其中左灣的閾值較高,達1.07×10-6 lx,故以此為視覺閾值進行視覺效度評估。左彎的閾值並顯著高於國際照明協會(CIE)的建議值。評估結果顯示兩種反光路面標記在8條彎道上的可見距離均能符合國際照明協會3秒前視時間的要求。儘管兩種反光路面標記均具有足夠的視覺效度,兩者間各有各的相對優勢。角錐型在半徑大於60公尺的彎道上視覺效度較佳,反之,半球型在半徑小於60公尺的彎道視覺效度較佳。
This study was to investigate the visibility effectiveness of the hemisphere pavement markers on various curved road conditions at night. The corner cube retroreflective pavement marker has been used to enhance the visibility of road delineation at night for long time. Although its retroreflection efficiency is high, its retroreflection index is highly depends on entrance angle. As the entrance angle increases, its retroreflection index drops significantly and its visibility decays. Therefore it may not be suitable for curved road driving conditions. The newly introduced hemisphere retroreflective pavement marker has a retroreflection index independently of entrance angle. This retroreflection property was considered to be better visually effective than the corner cube on curved roads. This study was undertaken to use the corner cube as bench marker, to investigate the visibility effectiveness of the hemisphere on curved road driving conditions.
This study consisted of two phases: the field experiment and the visibility effectiveness evaluation. The field experiments were to investigate the visibility effectiveness of these two markers on a curved road of typical small curvature. The visibility effectiveness evaluation was to evaluate the visibility effectiveness of these two markers on various curved roads with different radii based on the results of the field experiments.
The field experiments consisted of two tests. The first was to investigate the preview effectiveness of hemisphere for different types of cars. The second was to investigate the relative superiority between two marker types for different types of cars. The criteria of visibility effectiveness were preview effectiveness and relative superiority. Preview effectiveness was to compare the visibility length against the required preview length for safety driving. Relative supervisory was to compare the visibility length between these two markers. Thirty-two cars, consisting 22 sedans and 10 trucks, participated in the first test, among them, 5 cars were selected for the second test. An experimental U-shaped test track of 30 m in radius was set up to simulate the curved road driving conditions. The U-shaped track was used to simulate both right turn and left turn driving conditions. The subject was asked to report the appearance of a pre-determined target marker when he/she was just turning to the curved section from the straight leading section. The result indicates that both markers are visibility effective for both sedans and trucks, and the hemisphere is relatively superior to the corner cube regardless of car types.
The visibility effectiveness evaluation was to evaluate the visibility effectiveness of these two markers on eight levels of curved roads of different radii. Visual threshold was derived first as a key measure for evaluation. The results indicate that marker types do not result in difference in visual threshold, but directions of turning do. The left-turn had a significantly higher visual threshold, 1.70×10-6 lx, and was determined as the resultant visual threshold. It is significantly higher than the recommendation of Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE). The evaluation indicates that both pavement markers meet the required 3 seconds preview time as suggested by CIE. Although they are both visual effective, the corner cube is superior on roads with radii greater than 60 meters, and on the other hand, the hemisphere is much better for the roads with radii smaller than 60 meters.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES x
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Problem Statement 2
1.2 Research Objective 5
1.3 Thesis Organization 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Functional Requirement of Pavement Delineation
2.2 Driving Preview Length Requirement 10
2.3 Visual Threshold 12
2.4 Retroreflection Property 16
2.4.1 Measuring Coordination System 17
2.4.2 Principal of Retroreflection 18
2.4.3 Index for Retroreflection 22
2.5 Vehicle Factors 24
2.6 Visibility Effectiveness Evaluation and Criteria 25
CHAPTER 3 METHODS 28
3.1 Field Experiments 28
3.1.1 Hemisphere Preview Effectiveness Test 31
3.1.2 Marker Type Relative Superiority Test 35
3.2 Visibility Effectiveness Evaluation 38
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 40
4.1 Field Experiments 40
4.1.1 Hemisphere Preview Effectiveness Test 40
4.1.2 Marker Type Relative Superiority Test 44
4.2 Visibility Effectiveness Evaluation 49
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 54
5.1 Field Experiments 54
5.1.1 Hemisphere Preview Effectiveness Test 54
5.1.2 Marker Type Relative Superiority Test 56
5.2 Visibility Effectiveness Evaluation 57
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 59
REFERENCES 60
APPENDIX 65
Allen, R.W., O’Hanlon, J.F. et al. (1977) Driver Visibility requirement for Roadway Delineation. Vol I. Effects of Contrast and Configuration on Driver Performance and Behavior. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.
Asmussen, E. (1972) Transportation research in general and travelers decision making in particular as a tool for transportation management. OECD
ASTM D4280 (1993) Standard Specification for Extended Life Type, Nonplowable, Prismatic, Raised, Retroreflective Pavement Markers, American Society for Testing and Material, Philadelphia.
ASTM D4956 (1993) Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control, American Society for Testing and Material, Philadelphia.
Bali, S.G., Mcgee, H.W., Taylor, J.I. (1976) State-of-the-Art on Roadway delineation systems. Science Application Inc., E1 Sequndo.
Bali, S.G., Potts, R., Fee, J.A., Taylor, J.I., Glennon, J. (1978) Cost Effectiveness and Safety of Alternative Roadway Delineation Treatments for Rural Two-lane Highway. Final report prepared for Federal Highway Administration.
Blaauw, G.J. and Padmos, P. (1982) Nighttime Visibility of Various Types of Road Markings; A Study on Durability, Including Conditions of Rain, Fog and Dew. SAE paper 820412.
Blackwell, R.H. (1946) Contrast threshold of the human eye, Journal of Optical Society of America, 36, 624-643.
BS 873 (1987) Road Traffic Signs and Internally Illuminated Bollards, part 4. Specification for Road Stud. British Standards Institution, London.
Burnham, Jr, A.C. (1991) Traffic signs and markings, in J.L. Pline, (eds.), Traffic Engineering Handbook. Chapter 8, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 239-277.
CEN 5. Draft (1992) Road Studs, Part 1: Initial Performance Specifications. TC 226, European Standard.
CNS 7887 (1981) Sealed Beam Head Lamp Units for Motor Vehicles, Bureau of Standards, Methodology and Inspection, Taipei.
CNS 13762 (1981) 360∘Reflective Roadmarkers Made of Tempered Glass, Bureau of Standards, Methodology and Inspection, Taipei.
Cobb, J. (1990) Roadside survey of vehicle lighting 1989, Transportation and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthrone, UK.
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) (1982) Retroreflection Definition and Measurement. CIE publication No. 54, Vienna.
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) (1987) Guide to the Properties and Uses of Retroreflectors at Night. CIE publication No. 72, Vienna.
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) (1988) Visual Aspect of Road Markings. Joint technical report of CIE and PIARC. CIE publication No. 73, Vienna.
Davson, H. (1980) Physiology of the Eye. Churchill Livingstone, Endiburgh.
Ethen, J.L. and Woltman, H.L. (1986) Minimum Retroreflectance for nighttime visibility of pavement markings. Transportation Research Record 1093, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.
Gordon, D.A. (1966) Experimental isolation of driver’s visual input. Public Roads, 33,266-273.
Graham, C.H. and Bartlett, N.R. (1939) The relation of size of stimulus and intensity in the human eye. Intensity threshold for red and violet light. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24, 574-587.
Graham, C.H. and Margaria, R. (1935) Area and the intensity-time relation in the peripheral retina. American Journal of Physiology, 113, 299-305.
Graham, J. R. and King, L. E., (1991), Retroreflectivity requirements for pavement marking. Transportation research record 1316, National Research Council, Washington D.C., 43-47.
Griep, D. J. (1972) Analysis of the Driving Task; System Analytical Point of View. OECD.
Hills, B. L. (1980) Vision, visibility, and perception in driving, Perception, 9, 183-216.
Hood, D.C. and Finkelstein, M. A. (1986) Sensitivity to light, in K. R. Boff, K. Lloyd and J. P. Thomas (eds.), Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, Vol I, Chapter 5. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Hoffmann, E.R. and Joubert, P.N. (1966) The effect of changes in some vehicle handling variables on driver steering performance. Human Factors, 8, 245-263.
Karen, H.W. (1936) Area and the intensity-time relation in the fovea, Journal of General Physiology, 14, 360-369.
Keller, M. (1941) The relationship between the critical duration and intensity in brightness discrimination, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 28, 407-418.
Kondo, M. and Ajimine, A. (1968) Driver’s Sight Point and Dynamics of the Driver-vehicle System Related to it. SAE paper 680104.
Ministry of Transportation and Communication (MTC) (1986) Standards of Highway Road Design, Youth, Taipei (In Chinese).
Mourant, R.M. and Rockwell, T.H. (1970) Visual Information Seeking of Novice Drivers. SAE paper 700397.
Mueller, C.G. (1951) Frequency of seeing functions for intensity discrimination at various levels of adapting intensity, Journal of general Physiology, 34, 463-474
National Safety Council (NSC) (1985) Accident Facts. NSC, Chicago.
Neuman, T.R. (1991) Road Geometry Design, in J.L. Pline, (eds.), Traffic Engineering Handbook. Chapter 6,Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 162-163.
Paniati J.F., Mace, D.J. and Hostetter, R.S. (1987) A sign management system to maintain sign visibility at night, Public Roads, 50 (4), 116-123.
Polyak, S.L. (1941) The Retina, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Serre, A. M. (1981) The visibility of Highway marking, Lux, Vol. 112
Stewarts, J.M., Cole, B. L. and Pettit, J. L., (1983) Visual Difficulty Driving at Night, Australian Journal of Optometry, 66, 20-24.
Sivak, M., Flannigan, M.J. and Gellatly, A.W. (1993) Influence of truck driver eye position on effectiveness of retroreflective traffic signs, Lighting Research Technology, 25(1), 31-36.
Sivak, M., Flannigan, M.J. and Sato, T. (1992) Light output of US, European, and Japanese Low-Beam Headlamps, Transportation Research Board, 1456, 99-111.
SABS 1442 (1987) Standard Specification for Roadstuds. South African Bureau of Standards, Pretoria.
US Department of Transportation (1982) The 1982 highway safety stewardship report. US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.
US Department of Transportation (1988) Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.
Wickens, C.D. (1992) Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. Harper Collins Publishers, New York.
Weir, D.H. and McRuer, T.M. (1968) A theory for driver steering control of motor vehicles. Highway Research Record, 247, 7-39.
Wierwille, W.W., Gange, G.A. and Knight, J.R. (1967) An experimental study of human operator models and closed loop analysis methods for high speed automobile driving. I.E.E.E. Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, 8, 187-201
Zwahlen, H.T. and Schnell, T. (1995) Visibility of new pavement marking at night under low-beam illumination. Transportation Research Record 1495, 117-127.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top