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研究生:邱郁凱
研究生(外文):Ukai Chou
論文名稱:蜂炮慶典及火災意外時戴奧辛排放特性之研究
指導教授:凌永健凌永健引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yong Chien Ling
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:化學系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:200
中文關鍵詞:戴奧辛蜂炮火災主成分分析群集分析清單戴奧辛污染源周界空氣
外文關鍵詞:DioxinFirecrackerFirePrincipal component analysisCluster AnalysisInventoryPCDD/Fs sourcesAmbient air
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戴奧辛之分析研究於70年代左右,於80年代左右世界各國對戴奧辛於環境中之分佈、特性、含量估算、質量平衡、甚至排放污染源皆做全面性的調查,國內也於90年代開始發展這方面的研究,近幾年來政府也陸續投入相當的資源來做台灣地區戴奧辛調查,主題大都不離廢棄物焚化爐、煉鋼廠、火葬場、水泥窯及一些工業,本研究則針對蜂炮慶典及火災意外這兩種戴奧辛來源,主要內容如下所述。
蜂炮慶典時戴奧辛排放特性之研究,分析15個空氣樣品,所得結果為162 ~ 189(慶典前)、72.9 ~ 90.7(慶典時)、141 ~ 249(慶典後)及22.5(模擬蜂炮實驗前)及285 fg-TEQ/Nm3(模擬蜂炮實驗時),蜂炮排放係數為0.482 pg-TEQ/枝蜂炮,蜂炮慶典戴奧辛排放量2.41 μg-TEQ,模擬實驗的戴奧辛濃度百分比分佈為蜂炮燃放之戴奧辛分佈特性,主成分及階層群集分析結果將模擬實驗的2個蜂炮樣品歸為同一群,而其他樣品則屬於另一群。
火災意外時戴奧辛排放特性之研究,分析11個擦拭樣品及2個灰渣樣品,所得結果為擦拭樣品1.06 ~ 605 ng/m2及灰渣樣品201 ~ 719 ng/kg,推估全台建築火災戴奧辛大氣排放量為8.92 g-TEQ,約佔全國戴奧辛排放量3.94 %,主成分及階層群集分析結果3個樣品與文獻PVC火災樣品為同一群,其他樣品則與文獻一般火災樣品同群。
The UNEP report of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) inventories points out that the available number of national PCDD/Fs emission inventory is limited. The major sectors of PCDD/Fs release into the air were identified. Nevertheless, there are still un-identified PCDD/Fs sources . As part of our effort to estimate the Taiwan dioxin and furan inventory, we measured the PCDD/Fs concentrations in the ambient air during the FonPau festival in order to investigate whether the proliferation of firecrackers might produce a measurable increase in PCDD/Fs emissions.
The formation of thermally produced PCDD/Fs has been extensively studied. The reduction and elimination of PCDD/Fs can be achieved by optimizing the incinerating parameters and using air pollution control devices . However, certain thermal process such as fire accident, which is not controllable and releases unknown amount of PCDD/Fs. The study of PCDD/Fs in fire accidents is prevalent among researches, for example PVC-fire, house fire, vehicle fire, open-door incineration and municipal waste landfill fire. In November 2001, a fire accident occurred in a private residence and spread to the neighboring pesticide factory in Hsinchu city, Taiwan. A building next to the pesticide factory was heavily smoked during the fire. In this study, we collected and analyzed PCDD/Fs levels in wipe and ash samples from the scene of the fire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compare the PCDD/Fs distribution and to investigate the characteristic of the fire.
目錄…………………………………………………...……….. I
表目錄……………………………………………….…………… III
圖目錄……………………………………….…………………… V
第一章 緒論
1-1 前言……………………………………………………….…. 1-1
1-2 戴奧辛之歷史………………………………………………… 1-2
1-3 戴奧辛的特性………...………………………………….… 1-4
1-3-1 戴奧辛之結構………………….……………………... 1-4
1-3-2 戴奧辛之物性化性…………………..……………….. 1-4
1-3-3 戴奧辛之毒性………………………….……………... 1-5
1-4 戴奧辛的來源及傳輸途徑……………………………….…. 1-7
1-5 戴奧辛在環境中的背景值……………………….….……… 1-8
第二章 蜂炮慶典時戴奧辛排放特性之研究
2-1 前言…………………………………………………………… 2-1
2-2 蜂炮實驗方法………………………………………………… 2-2
2-2-1 實驗設計…………………………………….………... 2-2
2-2-2 採樣程序………………………………………….…... 2-4
2-2-3 分析程序………………………………………….…... 2-6
2-2-4 統計分析………………………………..……………. 2-12
2-2-5 數據計算及處理…………………………….…...…… 2-14
2-2-6 儀器設備及藥品……………………………...…….… 2-20
2-3 蜂炮實驗結果與討論…………………………………….…. 2-23
2-3-1 蜂炮樣品中PCDD/Fs濃度……...……………….…….. 2-23
2-3-2 蜂炮樣品特性資料………………………….…….….. 2-25
2-3-3 蜂炮樣品多變量統計分析結果………………………….. 2-28
2-3-4 蜂炮樣品戴奧辛排放係數及排放量推估……………….. 2-32
2-4 蜂炮實驗結論與建議……………………………….….. 2-35
第三章 火災意外時戴奧辛排放特性之研究
3-1 前言…………………………………………………………. 3-1
3-2 火災相關文獻資料…………………………………………. 3-2
3-3 火災實驗方法………………………………………………. 3-5
3-3-1 實驗設計………………………………………….…... 3-5
3-3-2 採樣程序……………………………………………… 3-6
3-3-3 分析程序……………………………………………… 3-7
3-4 火災實驗結果與討論………………………………………… 3-8
3-4-1 火災樣品中PCDD/Fs濃度…………………………… 3-8
3-4-2 火災樣品特性資料……………………………….…... 3-9
3-4-3 火災樣品多變量統計分析結果………………….…... 3-15
3-4-4 火災樣品戴奧辛排放係數及排放量推估……….…... 3-19
3-5火災實驗結論與建議…………………………………………. 3-25
第四章 總論及未來研究發展
第五章 參考文獻
附錄
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3.21李崇漢 (1997) 一般廢棄物焚化過程中戴奧辛排放特性之初步研究, 國立中央大學碩士論文.
3.22 賴宏德 (1999) 再合成及前驅物催化反應與戴奧辛生成特性之初步探討, 國立中央大學碩士論文.
3.23 Addink, R.; Olie, K. (1995) Role of Oxygen in Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins/Dibenzofurans from Carbon on Fly Ash. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29: 2055-2058.
3.24 Born, J. G.P.; Mulder, P.; Louw, R. (1993) Fly Ash Mediated (Oxy)Chlorination of Phenol and It’s Role in PCDD/F Formation. Chemosphere 26: 2087-2095.
3.25 Ruokojärvi, P.; Ettala, M.; Rahkonem, P; Tarhanen, J.; Ruuskanen, J. (1995) Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzo-p-furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in Municipal Waste Landfill Fires. Chemosphere 30(9): 1697-1708.
3.26 Merk, M.; Schramm, K.W.; Lenoir, D.; Henkelmann, B.; Kettrup, A. (1995) Determination of the PCDD/F Concentration in the Fumes from a PVC Fire. Organohalogen Compounds 23: 491-494.
3.27 Thomas, V.M.; Spiro, T.G. (1996) The U.S. Dioxin Inventory: Are There Missing Sources. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30(2): 82A-85A.
3.28內政部消防署 (2002) 台閩地區住宅火災分析調查表-民國89年及90年. (http://www.nfa.gov.tw/stats/stas2.htm)
3.29 Zelinski, V.; Wichmann, H.; Lorenz, W.; Bahadir, M. (1994) Chlorinated and Brominated Dioxins and Furans in Fire Residues from Private Residences and Vehicles — a Comparison, Abstract, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 3(7): 449-453.
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