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研究生:雷若琬
研究生(外文):Jo-Wan Lei
論文名稱:中間地帶﹕《野草在歌唱》一書中所呈現在性別、種族、階級間的游移現象
論文名稱(外文):The "Space Between": Negotiations of Gender, Race and Class
指導教授:王雪美
指導教授(外文):Hsueh-mei Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:桃樂絲‧萊辛野草在歌唱灰色地帶權力關係傅柯強盛邊緣混雜
外文關鍵詞:Doris LesssingThe Grass Is Singinggray areapower relationshipsMichel Foucaultpowerful marginalityhybridity
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桃樂絲‧萊辛(Doris Lessing)的第一本小說《野草在歌唱》( The Grass is singing) 往往都是透過馬克斯主義、心裡分析或後殖民等觀點來詮釋,然而這些方法論都無法解釋在小說中所呈現的灰色地帶(gray area)問題。很顯然的,文中的主要角色瑪麗、迪克、及摩西是不能以黑╱白二分法來將其歸類,因為他們是屬於中間的「灰色人物」。受制於傳統二分法的意識型態,他們終其一生都在男性─陽剛╱女性─陰柔,白人─威權╱黑人─受迫,和白人─有產階級╱黑人─無產階級的二元對立架構下游移。雖然權力的運作造成了有所謂邊緣╱主流的分法,然而根據傅柯(Michele Foucault)的權力論述來推斷,邊緣與主流之間的權力關係並不是固定的,而是流動的,甚至可被顛覆的。貝爾‧互克(Bell Hooks)也認為邊緣可以產生一股強大的力量,進而解除掉原先的邊緣╱主流排列,形成一種新的第三空間。諷刺的是,縱使這些灰色人物具有反抗的行動與顛覆的聲音,他們的反權威行為都只是片面的與短暫的,他們並不足以構成貝爾‧互克貝爾‧互克所謂的〈強盛邊緣〉(powerful marginality) 。同樣的,這些灰色人物也並不能達到荷米‧巴巴(Homi Bhabha)所說的混血(hybridity)狀態。總之,對這些邊緣的灰色人物來說,活在充斥二元對立意識型態的南羅德西里(Southern Rhodesia)社會中,無疑就像是活在現代版的荒原中,死亡、發瘋與被驅逐似乎是不可避免的命運。
Since its publication in 1950, The Grass Is Singing has been read from Marxist, psychoanalytical and post-colonial approaches. However, these approaches fail to bring to light the various ambiguities and “gray areas” in this novel. Drawing mainly on the theories proposed by Michele Foucault, bell hooks, Jonathan Rutherford and Edward W. Soja, this thesis attempts to shed light on the “Gray” characters, who belong neither to one place nor the other. All suffer from identity crisis, for they cannot be categorized into either side the binary divisions of male-masculine/female-feminine, white dominating/black dominated and white bourgeoisie/black proletariat suggest. According to Michele Foucault’s conception of power, the operation of power discourse contributes to the ideology of dichotomy and creates the boundary of the so-called margin and center. But, the relationship between margin and center is not always fixed and stable; instead, it is flowing and reversal. In The Grass Is Singing, though the marginal characters can rebel against the supremacist hegemony and patriarchal authority, the subversion they make is temporary and the transformation they cause is local. They can not be called the “powerful marginality” as bell hooks and Edward W. Soja propose, for they fail to create the new third space beyond margin and center. At the same time, they fail to achieve Homi Bhabha’s “hybridity,” a third space from which the opposing differences can be integrated. Living within the framework of binary oppositions, these “Gray” characters all live in the “space between,” unable to avoid the fate of death, madness and exclusion in the end. For them, Southern Rhodesia is like the reflector of the wasteland, full of alienation, uncertainty illusion. Like people on The Waste Land, the marginal characters in The Grass Is Singing wait for the coming of rain to save their infertile spirit. Yet, there is no hope for Mary, Moses and Tony; they are doomed to live in disillusioned and helpless world.
Chapter One
Introduction…………………………………………………………1
Chapter Two
The World of Wasteland:“Gray” Characters in The Grass
Is Singing………………………………………………………… 12
Chapter Three
Margin vs Center: The Flowing of "Gray" Characters…… 29
Chapter Four
Death, Madness and Exclusion:Failure of Subversion…… 46
Chapter Five
Conclusion………………………………………………………… 64
Works Cited ……………………………………………………………… 71
Selected BiBibliography ……………………………………………… 74
Works Cited
Cederstrom, Lorelei. “The Feminine Denied: The Negative
Animus in The Grass Is Singing.” Fine-Tuning the
Feminine Psyche: Jungian Patterns in the Novels
of Doris Lessing. New York: Peter Lang, 1990. 17-29.
Fahim, Shadia S. “The Grass Is Singing.” Doris Lessing:
Sufi Equilibrium and the Form of the Novel. New York:
St. Martin’s, 1994. 19-50.
Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization. Trans. Richard
Howard. New York: Random, 1965.
---. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. Vol. 1.
Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Random, 1978.
---. Power/Knowledge. Trans. Colin Gordon, Leo Marshall, John
Mepham,and Kate Soper. Ed. Colin Gordon. New York:
Geoffroy, Alain. “Dreams in Doris Lessing’s The Grass Is
Singing.”Commonwealth Essays and Studies 11.2 (1989):
110-120.
Gindin, James. “Doris Lessing’s Intense Commitment.”
Postwar British Fiction. Berkeley: U of California P,
1963. 65-85. Pantheon, 1980.
Hooks, Bell. Ain’t I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism.
London: Pluto , 1982.
---. Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Boston: South
End Press, 1984.
Lessing, Doris. The Grass Is Singing. New York: A Plume Book,
1991.
Myles, Anita. “Attitude to Apartheid.” Doris Lessing: A
Novelist with Organic Sensibility. New Delhi:
Associated, 1991. 19-35.
Pickering, Jean. “The Grass Is Singing (1950); African
Stories (1964).” Understanding Doris Lessing. Columbia,
SC.: U of South Carolina P, 1990. 18-37.
---. “Marxism and Madness: The Two Faces of Doris Lessing’s
Myth.”Modern Fiction Studies 26.1 (1980): 17-30.
Rubenstein, Roberta. “The Grass Is Singing.” The Novelistic
Vision of Doris Lessing--Breaking the Forms of
Consciousness. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1979
Rutherford, Jonathan. “A Place Called Home: Identity and the
Cultural Politics of Difference.” Identity: Community,
Culture, Difference. Ed. Jonathan Rutherford. London:
Lawrence & Wishart, 1990. 9-27
---. “ TheThird Space: Interview with Homi Bhabha.” Identity:
Community, Culture, Difference. 207-221.
Soja, Edward W. Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other
Real-and Imagined Places. Massachusetts:Blackwell,1996
Sprague, Claire. “The Grass Is Singing (1950).” Reading
Doris Lessing: Narrative Patterns of Doubling and
Repetition. Chapel Hill: The U of North Carolina P,
1987. 19-38.
Ware, Vron. “The White Woman’s Burden? ” Beyond the Pale:
White Woman,Racism and History. London: Verso, 1992. 1-
46.
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