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研究生:吳家珍
研究生(外文):Wu Chia-Chen
論文名稱:台灣之大學生英文作文說明文範文結構分析成效之個案研究
論文名稱(外文):A Case Study of the Effect of Rhetorical Analysis via Expository Models on Taiwanese Freshmen's English Compositions
指導教授:鍾乃森
指導教授(外文):Nathan B. Jones
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:英文作文教學說明文說明文結構結構分析範文
外文關鍵詞:the teaching of English writingExpository writingExpository organizationRhetorical analysismodel essaysfreewriting
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台灣之大學生英文作文說明文範文結構分析成效之個案研究
範文的使用,在英文寫作教學中,一直是相當普遍但又頗富爭議的教學方法。雖然「結果寫作」和「過程寫作」兩派學者,對英文範文組織教學有不同的看法,但是卻很少有研究探討它們的成效。
此研究主要在探討範文組織教學對大一新生說明文寫作及學習態度的影響,並和沒使用範文的「表達性寫作方法」(expressive writing method)做比較。九個大一新生接受為期六個星期、總共十二篇的英文說明文範文組織教學;八個學生接受以訓練寫作流利度為主的自由寫作。研究結果包括了學生在前後測所寫的說明文、三次訪談、及兩次書面問卷調查。
研究結果顯示,這兩種寫作教學方法,對學生的說明文寫作都有顯著的成效。訪談及問卷結果也顯示,這兩種教學方法本質上可能互補,並對英文寫作過程中不同的寫作階段有幫助。說明文範文組織教學對寫作後期中組織的理解及組織結構的修改有很大的幫助;表達性寫作方法,則對寫作初期的流利度、創造力較有幫助。再者,由於表達性寫作中,大量使用了自由寫作及訓練創造力的活動,使得表達性寫作方法比範文組織教學有趣。根據這些研究結果,文末並提供了一份綜合這兩種寫作方法的課程表,以使學生能習得英文寫作中的多種面向,並維持英文寫作的興趣。

ABSTRACT
The use of model essays has been a fairly common yet controversial technique in the teaching of EFL/ESL writing. Both product-oriented and process-oriented researchers hold different views on their uses in the teaching of organizational aspects. However, few research studies have investigated their effects in writing classes.
The purpose of this study was thus to ascertain the effect of rhetorical modeling on university freshmen’s writing of English expository essays and learning attitude as compared to a more expressive writing method without the use of model essays. Nine foreign language majors in the rhetorical analysis group received explicit instruction on organization in 12 expository model essays in the six-week classes, whereas eight in the expressive writing group emphasized the development of creativity, writing fluency, and idea generation via the freewriting techniques. All of the students were asked to write an expository essay at the beginning and at the end of the study. The data analyzed in this study consisted of the participants’ sample essays in the pretest and posttest, three in-depth interviews, and two written survey questionnaires within and at the end of the instructional period.
The results of the sample essays showed that both the rhetorical modeling and the expressive method had significantly positive effects on the quality of expository writing. The interview and questionnaire data also indicated that both writing methods might complement each other, since they can facilitate the learning of different aspects in different stages of writing processes. The explicit teaching of expository organization via model essays could actively foster the development of rhetorical awareness and rhetorical schemata in revision, whereas the expressive writing method was more helpful in the development of writing fluency, creativity, and idea generation in the prewriting stage. Also, the expressive writing method was more interesting than rhetorical modeling, mainly due to the essence of the technique of freewritings and interesting activities. A more balanced combination of the two was thus presented in a sample syllabus for students to learn English writing in various aspects and to keep them interested in learning English writing.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background.........................................1
1.2 Purpose of the study...............................2
1.3 Definition of Terms................................3
1.3.1 Case study...................................3
1.3.2 Model essays.................................5
1.3.3 Expository texts.............................5
1.3.4 Freewriting..................................6
1.4 Potential contribution.............................6
1.5 Organization of the thesis.........................7
Chapter 2 Literature review
Overview...............................................8
2.1 The use of model texts.............................8
2.1.1 Process-oriented view........................8
2.1.2 Product-oriented view.......................11
2.2 Rhetorical organization...........................14
2.2.1 Rhetorical effects on reading...............15
2.2.2 Rhetorical effects on writing...............16
2.3 Research Questions................................20
Chapter 3 Research methodology
Overview of the research design.......................21
3.1 Participants......................................21
3.2 Instructional design and material.................24
3.2.1 The rhetorical analysis group...............25
3.2.2 The expressive writing group................31
3.3 Procedures........................................36
3.4 Data analysis.....................................40
3.4.1 The analysis of writing samples.............40
3.4.2 The analysis of interview data..............41
3.4.3 The analysis of questionnaires..............42
Chapter 4 Results
Overview..............................................44
4.1 Writing sample analysis...........................45
4.2 Interview data analysis...........................49
4.2.1 Students' perceptions of model essays.......50
4.2.2 Students' attitude toward structural analysis
............................................54
4.2.3 Students' opinions about the use of detail trees
............................................68
4.2.4 Students' ideas about learning content and
activities..................................72
4.3 Questionnaire data analysis.......................80
Chapter 5 Research discussion
Overview..............................................93
5.1 Pedagogical implication...........................93
5.1.1 Rhetorical modeling.........................94
5.1.2 The integration of both methods of writing
instruction.................................99
5.2 Research limitations and recommendations for future
research..........................................113
References.................................................115

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