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研究生:林家瑄
研究生(外文):Lin Chia-Hsuan
論文名稱:新竹滑板族:主體性、身體與青少年認同
論文名稱(外文):Skateboarders in Hsinchu: Subjectivity, Body and the Adolescent Identity
指導教授:陳光興陳光興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen Kuan-Hsing
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:153
中文關鍵詞:滑板身體主體性青少年認同消費運動
外文關鍵詞:skateboardbodysubjectivityadolescentidentityconsumptionsport
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在本論文中,筆者以90年代末期在台灣受到青少年歡迎的滑板活動做為起點,透過分析相關的資料、以及在田野過程中收集的田野筆記、訪談記錄等,探討青少年如何透過建構一個滑板玩家(「板族」)的主體位置,產生認同經驗。
首先,從滑板活動做為一個外來的運動的觀點,描述滑板活動在美國萌芽發展出來的一些特質─例如滑板風格的轉變以及與商業機制的密切連結,接著探討這些特質如何在進入台灣的過程中,如何被轉化、消解及吸收,以一種主流價值認可的「極限運動」的標籤,與青少年流行結合,使其成為便於讓青少年能展現自我風格的少數運動之一,並且透過在地滑板店家的中介,使資源流通,而成為在地青少年中可見的認同位置之一(第二章)。
接著,則從在地青少年板族的實際經驗出發,發現在成為一個「有在玩板的人」的過程中,青少年在建構及標示板族認同的實際實踐,是透過在受傷、練習,以及在公共空間中玩板等規訓以及展示自己的身體經驗中,而完成─一個與幾乎全由美國進口的滑板錄影帶中所展現的國外板族形象相符的強健身體,而與這樣的身體結合的板族身份,也同時與這些男性青少年們日常生活實踐中所追求,一個「屌」的價值觀所推崇的男性陽剛身體有交叉重疊之處,因而得到認同形成的線索(第三章)。
在第四部分,則將板族認同形成的經驗擴展到這些青少年們生活的重要空間之一─板店。在該空間中,板族認同在青少年們與店家的合作/抗拒關係中,以及與其他在該空間中生活的板族們的日常互動經驗中,被進一步維持以及協商出來。在這樣一個被生產邏輯所貫穿的空間中,板族認同被再現出來,然而同時在該再現過程中,板族們採用了個人義氣的邏輯,發展出一個在某種程度上能跟與店家生產邏輯相抗衡的另類認同機制(第四章)。
在最後一部分,則將這些青少年板族認同形成的過程,以及本篇論文─尤其作為一個田野研究─放在社會總體以及個人生命的歷史角度,再做反省(第五章)。
In this thesis I take the skateboarding activity that has become popular among local adolescents since the late 1990s as point of departure, to explore how specific adolescents formed identities through constructing the skateboarder subject, by analyzing related documents, notes and interviews collected in field researches.
First, by looking at skateboarding as an imported sport, I delineated the characteristics it has formed in its development in the US--such as the transformation of styles and its close connection with commercial mechanisms. Then I explore how these characteristics were appropriated or rejected when skateboarding was admitted into Taiwan. While being labeled as one of the ‘extreme sports’, skateboarding combined with teenage fashion and has become one of the few sports that facilitated the exhibition of personal style of teenagers. Its prevalence has been made possible through the local skateboard shops, and it has become one of the visible identical positions for local adolescents (Chapter two).
Next I moved on to the practical experiences of local young skateboarders in becoming ‘someone who has been skateboarding,’ and find that the concrete practices to construct and label the skateboarder identity was completed through disciplining and displaying one’s own body while they were practicing the tricks, confronting the injuries and skateboarding in the public space, that is, a tough body that was identical to those of foreign skateboarders displayed in the mostly American imported skateboarding videos. The skateboarder identity that combines with such tough body also coincides with the strong male body that is highly valued in the ‘cocky’ value system in their daily practices, as the clue of the appealing of this identity to them (Chapter three).
In the fourth part, I expended the process in constructing the skateboarder identity to the important living space for these young people--the skateboard shop--wherein the identity is further maintained and negotiated through the experiences that skateboarders have in cooperating with and resisting against the shopkeepers as well as other skateboarders in the space of skateboard shop. In such a space, penetrated by the logic of production, the skateboarder identity is re-presented under this mechanism, while at the same time, the skateboarders adopted the logic of personal loyalty to develop alternative ways to form identities that resist the mechanism operated by the logic of production (Chapter four).
Lastly, I review the formation of skateboarder identity by situating the young skaters back to the society as a whole, as well as the thesis as a process of personal writing in Chapter Five.
List of figures……………………………………………………………………….…v
List of tables in the Appendix………………………………………………………...vi
List of Figures in the Appendix……………………………………………………...vii
Chapter One Introduction…..………………………………………………………1
1.1 Preface………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Critical Overview…………………………………………………………...5
1.3 Analytical Structure…………………………………………………………7
1.3.1 Problematic…………………………………………………………...7
1.3.2 Thesis Structure………………………………………………………8
1.4 Research Methods and the Limitation……………………………………...10
1.5 Introducing the Leading Characters…………………………………………13
Chapter Two Acceptance and Appropriation: American Skateboarding Entering Taiwan………………………………………………………………..14
2.1 The History of Skateboarding In the US Context…………………………..16
2.1.1 The Origin and Development of Skateboarding Activities…………..16
2.1.2 The Formation of Skateboarding Culture…………………………….19
2.2 Development of Skateboarding Activities in Taiwan………………………22
2.2.1 The Emergence of Skateboarding Population from 1970s to 1980s…………………………………………………………………22
2.2.2 The Increasing Skateboarding Population and Its Activities since the 1990s …………………………………………………………………24
2.3 Emergence of Skateboarder Subject and the Mediation of the Skateboard Shops……………………………………………………………………….28
2.3.1 Emergence of Skateboarder Subject in the Late 1990s………………28
2.3.2 Transformation of Skateboard Shops in Taiwan……………………..34
2.3.3 The Distributor and the Development of Sponsorship System………37
Chapter Three Becoming “Someone Who Has Been Skateboarding”….…………41
3.1 The Emergence of H Gang and I Gang……………………………………..44
3.1.1 The Formation of H Gang……………………………………………45
3.1.2 The Formation of I Gang…………………………………………….48
3.2 Entering The World of Skateboarding...…………………………………...52
3.2.1 Disciplining and Challenging One’s Own Body: Dialogue Between Self and Body………………………………………………………...52
3.2.1-1 Practicing the Tricks………………………………………....53
3.2.1-2 Confronting Injuries…………………………………………56
3.2.2 Confronting Others: The Exhibition and Juxtaposition of Bodies…..61
3.2.2-1 Juxtaposition of Bodies: The Balance Between Competition and Harmony…………………………………………………62
3.2.2-2 Confronting the Publics: The Exhibition of Body in Public Space…………………………………………………………66
3.3 Wearing Skateboarder’s Outfit: Learning to Grasp and Mark A Skateboarder’s Body Image………………………………………………..74
3.3.1 Adopting Skateboarder’s Style: Changes in Dressing Habit………...75
3.3.2 Between Consensus and Creation: The Formation of A Unique Style………………………………………………………………….77
3.4 Someone Who Has Been Skateboarding: The ‘Cocky’ Athlete…………...82
3.4.1 Appropriating ‘Cocky’ from the Body Level………………………..84
3.4.2 The Verbal Operation of the Word ‘Cocky’…………………………86
3.4.3 The ‘Cocky’ Characteristics in Skateboarding………………………87
Chapter Four Life in Skateboard Shop: Maintaining and Reproducing the Adolescent Skateboarder Identities………………………………….……………92
4.1 The Skateboard Shops: Centralizing and Mediating the Resources.………95
4.2 Joining The Skateboard Shop: Becoming the Member of Certain Shop…..99
4.2.1 The H gang and Shop b………………………………………………99
4.2.2 The I Gang and Shop a……………………………………………..106
4.3 The Formation of Skateboarders’ Communities: Network and Chinks….110
4.3.1 Brand Loyalty………………………………………………………110
4.3.2 The Division of Different Grouping Characteristics...……………...114
4.4 The Construction of Comradeship and the Alternative Ways for Adolescents to Form Identity…………………………………………………….…….119
4.4.1 The Logic of Comradeship: Those Who Were Acquainted and Not Acquainted………………………………………………………….120
4.4.2 Expressing Personal Generosity and Loyalty………………………122
4.4.3 Personal Loyalty as The Possibility for Adolescents to Connect with Each Other………………………………………………………….123
Chapter Five Conclusion: Rethinking Skateboarder Subject and The Adolescents’ Experiences of Forming Identities………………………………….127
5.1 Rethinking the Characteristics in the Construction of Adolescent Skateboarder Subject……………………………………………………..128
5.1.1 Body as the Base of Self-affirmation……………………………….128
5.1.2 Skateboarders from the US as the Main Resources of Cultural Imagination…………………………………………………………129
5.1.3 Representation of Identity in the Space of Consumption…………..131
5.2 Directions for Further Researches………………………………………..132
5.3 Reflections on Doing the Research: Limitations and Possibilities of the Researcher……………………………………………………...…………133
Appendix……………………………………………………………………………137
References…………………………………………………………………………..146
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