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研究生:鄭靖玄
研究生(外文):Ching-hsuan Cheng
論文名稱:聽力策略教學對國中生之成效
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Listening Strategy Instruction on Junior High School Students
指導教授:柯安娜柯安娜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Johanna E. Katchen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:學習策略聽力策略策略教學聽力訓練國中生英語
外文關鍵詞:learning strategylistening strategystrategy instructionlistening trainingJunior high school studentsEnglishEFLListening strategy instruction
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摘 要
現今英語聽力的培養已受到越來越多人重視,然而大多數中學教師的聽力教學仍採取放錄音帶做聽力練習或考試的方式,甚少對於學生所遇到的困難加以指導。事實上,教師可提供學生多方協助,而聽力策略教學即是一可行的協助方式。
本論文旨在探討在國中實施英語聽力策略教學之成效。此研究問題就三方面來探討:學生聽力測驗成績進步情形、聽力策略運用改進情況、以及學生的情意反應。 本研究歷時將近一個學期。受試者為四班國中二年級學生,實驗組和對照組各兩班。對照組只做聽力練習,而實驗組除了做相同的聽力練習之外,更同時學習聽力策略。資料蒐集方式包括前測、後測、段考聽力成績、背景問卷、聽力策略問卷、反思問卷、後測問卷及訪談。
研究結果發現接受聽力策略教學之後,實驗組的聽力測驗成績顯著優於對照組,顯示聽力策略教學能有效提昇中學生的英語聽解能力。而學生在聽力策略運用上的進步,顯示出明確的聽力策略教學能使學生提高使用這些策略的頻率。此外,大多數受試者於問卷及訪談中,對此聽力策略教學均持肯定態度,並表示在此次教學之後,覺得自己的英語聽力進步了,也因此更有自信。
本研究證明英語聽力策略教學可成功融入課堂聽力訓練之中。基於研究結果,本論文提出對於聽力策略教學以及現行中學聽力訓練的建議,期能對國內英語聽力教學的進展有所貢獻。
Although more and more people have noticed the importance of English listening ability, most junior high school English teachers’ method of teaching English listening is merely to have students do some listening exercises or simply to give listening tests without any instruction. In fact, listening is not an easy task for those beginning learners, and the teachers may be able to do more to facilitate their students’ listening comprehension. One of the ways to aid listening is to teach listening strategies.
The present study aimed at investigating the effects of listening strategy instruction on junior high school students in Taiwan. The issue was explored in three respects, the effects on listening test performances, on listening strategy use, and the effects in the affective domain.
Based on the experience gained from a pilot study, the present study was conducted, lasting for nearly one semester. The subjects were four classes of second-year junior high school students, with two classes each in the control group and the experimental group. Both group practiced listening tasks in seven class sessions, during which the control group practiced listening tasks without any strategy instruction while the experimental group practiced the same listening tasks and received listening strategy instruction at the same time. The data were collected via a Pretest, listening practices in class, listening sections in monthly exams, a Posttest, a Background Questionnaire, Reflection Questionnaires, a Posttest Questionnaire, and an interview.
The results showed that the listening strategies significantly facilitated students’ performances on listening comprehension tests, indicating that the strategy instruction could hold promise for improving beginning EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability. The improvement in the students’ strategy use suggests that explicit strategy instruction can broaden the repertoire of students’ strategies and increase the frequency of using the strategies. Further, the students’ responses on questionnaires and in the interview also indicated that most of them hold positive attitudes toward listening strategy instruction and that their confidence in their own English listening comprehension ability had been increased.
The present study demonstrates that listening strategy instruction can be incorporated successfully into the listening training in junior high schools in Taiwan. Based on the findings, some suggestions for listening strategy instruction and listening training are provided. It is hoped that the present study can contribute to the development of teaching listening in Taiwan.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT----------------------------------------------i
ABSTRACT-----------------------------------------------------ii
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS----------------------------------------------iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS---------------------------------------------v
LIST OF TABLES---------------------------------------------viii
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION-----------------------------------------------1
II. LITERATURE REVIEW-----------------------------------------3
Strategies----------------------------------------------------3
Definitions of learning strategies-------------------------3
Classification schemes and identification------------------4
Studies on listening strategies----------------------------6
Review of studies on strategy instruction--------------------16
Studies on learning strategy instruction------------------16
Studies on listening strategy instruction-----------------19
The type of strategy instruction-----------------------------24
Direct versus embedded instruction------------------------24
Combination of strategies to teach------------------------25
The teaching procedure------------------------------------26
Research Questions-------------------------------------------28
III. METHODOLOGY---------------------------------------------29
The Pilot study----------------------------------------------30
Subjects-----------------------------------------------------31
The listening strategies-------------------------------------33
Materials for listening training and listening strategy instruction--------------------------------------------------35
Instruments--------------------------------------------------36
Listening comprehension pretest and posttest--------------37
Background Questionnaire----------------------------------37
Listening Comprehension Strategy Questionnaire------------37
Reflection Questionnaire----------------------------------39
Posttest Questionnaire------------------------------------40
Procedure----------------------------------------------------40
Data analysis procedures-------------------------------------43
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION-----------------------------------44
Results------------------------------------------------------44
Results of Background Questionnaire-----------------------44
Listening test performance--------------------------------46
1) Pretest---------------------------------------------46
2) Listening practices in class------------------------47
3) Listening sections in monthly exams-----------------48
4) Posttest--------------------------------------------49
Strategy use----------------------------------------------50
Affective effects-----------------------------------------51
1) Reflection Questionnaires---------------------------51
2) Posttest Questionnaire------------------------------58
3) Interview-------------------------------------------62
Discussion of the findings-----------------------------------66
Listening test performances-------------------------------66
Strategy use----------------------------------------------68
Affective effects ----------------------------------------68
V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION------------------------------------72
Summary------------------------------------------------------72
Pedagogical Implications-------------------------------------74
Suggestions for strategy instruction-------------------------74
Suggestions for the materials--------------------------------76
Suggestions for the equipment and the environment------------77
Limitations and suggestions for further research-------------77
REFERENCES---------------------------------------------------80
APPENDICES
A. Materials for instruction---------------------------------87
B. Pretest -------------------------------------------------100
C. Posttest-------------------------------------------------102
D. Background Questionnaire---------------------------------104
E. Listening Comprehension Strategy Questionnaire-----------105
F. Reflection Questionnaire-------------------------------- 109
G. Posttest Questionnaire-----------------------------------110
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Most Frequently Used and Least Frequently Used
Strategies-------------------------------------------15
Table 2: Summary of studies on listening strategy instruction-22
Table 3: The nine listening strategies taught in the program--33
Table 4: Procedures-------------------------------------------42
Table 5: Results of the Background Questionnaire--------------45
Table 6: T-test results of the Pretest performance------------46
Table 7: T-test results of the performances on the listening
practices in every class session---------------------47
Table 8: T-test results on the listening sections in Monthly
Exams 1 and 2----------------------------------------48
Table 9: T-test results of the Posttest performance-----------49
Table 10: Paired t-test results on the Listening Comprehension
Strategy Questionnaire------------------------------50
Table 11:Paired t-test results on the nine strategies on LCSQ-50
Table 12:Paired t-test results on the other strategies on LCSQ--
-----------------------------------------------------51
Table 13: Opinions toward the strategies collected from
Reflection Questionnaires---------------------------52
Table 14: Benefits and limitations of applying the nine
strategies------------------------------------------53
Table 15: Responses to Questions 1~4 on the Posttest
Questionnaire---------------------------------------58
Table 16: Responses to Questions 5~11 on the Posttest
Questionnaire---------------------------------------59
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