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研究生:李春儀
論文名稱:高中生利用網路關鍵字前後文索引工具以學習英文字彙之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Using Web Concordancing for English Vocabulary Learning in a Taiwanese High School Context
指導教授:劉顯親劉顯親引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:關鍵字前後文索引工具語料
外文關鍵詞:concordancercorpus
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:8
中文摘要
隨著資訊科技的發展,愈來愈多的網際網路資源可供外語學習者使用。在眾多網際網路資源裡,關鍵字前後文索引工具對外語學習而言是一個比較新的學習工具,它可提供使用者搜尋語料庫中的任何字詞。迄今有關索引工具的研究,多數皆探討如何利用索引工具幫助高等教育中的英語學習。然而,有關如何應用索引工具於中學生的研究,目前仍非常少見。此外,由於索引工具的學習過程鼓勵歸納性的思考及發現學習,有關學習者較喜好的英語學習方式 (歸納法或演繹法) 和透過索引工具學習的效能之間互動關係的研究,值得進一步探究。
本研究旨在探討(一)索引工具納入高中英語課程之可行性,(二)學習者的字彙程度和其較喜好的英語學習方式是否影響用索引工具學習英語字彙之效能,及(三)學習者對此工具的反應。四十六位來自同一個班級的高二學生在九十年度的第一個學期參與此研究。學期初本實驗進行之前,受試者填寫一份背景問卷,以瞭解受試者利用網路學習英文之情形及其對英文學習的感受和較喜好的英文學習方式。之後我們在正規的英語課程中,利用十節課時間讓受試者利用索引工具完成規定的作業。所有受試者的字彙學習情況皆接受前測、小考及後測評量。我們也設計一份改錯練習以瞭解受試者個別使用索引工具的情形。學期末實驗結束後,受試者填寫一份問卷以評估對利用索引工具學習英文字彙的感受。我們用「變異數分析」(ANOVA) 檢驗不同字彙程度的受試者及喜好不同英語學習方式的受試者其英文字彙學習在前測、小考及後測評量的表現是否有顯著差異。受試者個別使用索引工具的情形也被歸類、分析及討論。研究者本身也從一個在職老師的觀點觀察整個研究過程,以便提供台灣的英語教師們一些建議。
資料分析結果,我們得到以下的發現。第一、以一位在職老師的觀點來看,我們認為將索引工具納入中等教育英語學習是可行的。第二、索引工具可以幫助高中生英語字彙的學習。尤其是對字彙能力低的學生及喜好歸納法學習英文的學生幫助更大。第三、問卷結果顯示受試者對利用索引工具學習英語抱持著正面的態度,並肯定透過索引工具學習英語字彙的效能。但受試者也指出希望技術性層面的問題如網路連接速度及其穩定性問題能獲得解決,且能有更好用的索引工具介面可以使用。
本研究結果顯示出利用索引工具學習英語是有效的語言學習方式。學生從老師主導的學習模式解放出來,並為自己的語言學習負責。語料庫中大量的真實語料提供學習者很多的語言輸入,並能增強學習者歸納性的學習策略。若能有細心的規劃及適當的引導,相信索引工具能有效地納入中等教育的語言課程中,並能對語言學習有幫助。
Abstract
With the development of information technology, more and more Internet resources are available for foreign language learners. Among various Internet resources, the web concordancer is a relatively new learning tool for foreign language learning, which allows learners to search for occurrences of any lexical term in a corpus of text. Concordancing encourages inductive thinking and discovery learning. Most of the previous empirical concordancing studies have investigated how the web concordancer can be used to assist English learning at the tertiary school level. However, not much is known about how the concordancer can be incorporated into English learning at the secondary school level. Besides, the interaction between learners’ preferred English learning styles (induction or deduction) and the effectiveness of concordance-based learning is worth investigating.
This study aims to investigate the feasibility of incorporating concordancing into regular EFL senior high school English curriculum, to examine whether learners’ vocabulary level and preferred English learning style influence the effectiveness of concordancing on English vocabulary learning, and to elicit learners’ feedback on web concordancing. Forty-six second-year senior high school students from an intact class participated in the study in the fall semester, 2001. Before the study, a background questionnaire was used to obtain information about the students’ use of computers and the Internet, their English learning and their preferred English learning styles. Then ten concordancing sessions were incorporated into regular English classes and students were asked to work on the concordancing tasks with the help of the concordancer during these sessions. A pretest, a quiz and a posttest were conducted to measure all the students’ vocabulary learning. An error correction exercise was also used to gain deeper understanding about the process of individual student’s use of the web concordancer. At the end of the study, all the subjects’ perceptions about web concordancing were elicited through an evaluation questionnaire. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was run to investigate if there were significant differences among students of different vocabulary levels and different learning styles in terms of vocabulary learning in the pretest, quiz and posttest. The individual use of the web concordancer was categorized, analyzed and discussed as well. The researcher also observed the whole concordancing process from an in-service teacher’s point of view so that suggestions can be provided for English teachers in Taiwan.
Through data analyses, the following findings were obtained. First, it is feasible to incorporate concordancing into high school English classes from an in-service teacher’s perspective. Second, concordancing is able to assist high school students’ English vocabulary learning. In particular, students of the low vocabulary level group and the induction group benefited more from concordancing. Third, responses from the evaluation questionnaire showed that students held positive attitudes toward web concordancing and endorsed the effectiveness of concordancing on English vocabulary learning. But they also indicated that technical problems such as the speed and stability of the Internet connection needed to be resolved and a more user-friendly interface of the concordancer is desirable.
The results of the study suggested that concordancing can be an effective form of language learning. It liberates students from teacher-centered instruction and encourages students to become responsible for their own language learning. The large amounts of authentic language data used in the process can serve as language input and stimulate learners’ inductive learning strategies. With careful planning and appropriate guidance, it is believed that concordancing can be incorporated into secondary level language instruction to benefit language learning.
Chapter I INTRODUCITON
Chapter II LITERATURE REVIEW
Concordancing
Concordancer
Corpus
Concordance-based language learning approach
Concordancer development
Pedagogical Implications
Course design and evaluation
Materials preparation
Interactive cocnordancing
Empirical Studies
Learners'' Individual Characteristics
Inductive and deductive reasoning
Research Questions
Chapter III RESEARCH METHOD
A Pilot Study
Overall Design
Participants
Instruments
Instrucitonal Design
Data Collection Procedures
Data Analysis
Chater IV RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results
The results of the background questionnaire
The results of the pretest
The results of the quiz
The results of the posttest
The results of the error correction exercise
The results of the evaluation quesionnaire
Discussion
The feasibility of introducing concordancing
into high schools
Learners'' individual differences in web
concordancing
Learners'' attitudes toward web concordancing
Summary
Chapter V CONCLUSION
Limitations of the study
Future Research
Pedagogical implications
REFERENCE
APPENDICES
REFERENCES
Abraham, R. G. (1985). Field independence-dependence and the teaching of grammar. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 689-702.
Brown, H. D. (1993). Principles of language learning and teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall Regents.
Butler, J. (1991). Cloze procedures and concordances: The advantages of discourse level authenticity in testing expectancy grammar. System, 19 (1/2), 29-38.
Chapelle, C. & Jamieson, J. (1986). Computer-assisted language learning as a predictor of success in acquiring English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 20 (1), 27-46.
Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition: Foundations for teaching, testing and research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, H. J. (1997). Data-driven learning via the World-Wide-Web and EFL writing. 第五屆語文教學研究與電腦資訊研討會, 政治大學
Chen, H. J. (2000). Developing a web concordancer for English as foreign language learners. Proceedings of International Conference on Computers in Education, 2000. Grand Hotel, November 21-25. Taipei, Taiwan. NTHU.
Cobb, T. (1997). Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing? System, 25 (3), 301-315.
Cobb, T. (1999). Breadth and depth of lexical acquisition with hands-on concordancing. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 12 (4), 345-360.
Flowerdew, L. (1993). Concordancing as a tool in course design. System, 21 (2), 231-244.
Flowerdew, L. (1998). Concordancing on an expert and learner corpus for ESP. CAELL Journal, 8 (3), 3-7.
Hale, G. A., Stansfield, C. W., Rock, D. A., Hicks, M. M., Butler, F. A. & Oller, J. W. Jr. (1989). The relation of multiple-choice cloze items to the test of English as a foreign language. Language Testing 6, 47-76.
Higgins, J. (1991a). Fuel for learning: The neglected element of textbooks and CALL. CAELL Journal, 2 (2), 3-7.
Higgins, J. (1991b). Which concordancer: A comparative review of MS-DOS software. System, 19 (1/2), 91-100.
Johns, T. (1991a). Should you be persuaded─Two examples of data driven learning materials. In T. Johns & P. King (Eds.), Classroom concordancing, ELR Journal 4, 1-16. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
Johns, T. (1991b). From printout to handout: Grammar and vocabulary teaching in the context of data-driven learning. In T. Johns & P. King (Eds.), Classroom concordancing, ELR Journal 4, 27-45. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
Kennedy, C. & Miceli, T. (2001). An evaluation of intermediate students’ approaches to corpus investigation. Language Learning & Technology, 5 (3), 77-90.
Kettemann, B. (1995). On the use of concordancing in ELT. TELL&CALL, 4, 4-15.
Download, 10/22/2000 [on-line].
Available: http://gewi.kfunigraz.ac.at/~ketteman/conco.html
King, P. (1989). The uncommon core: Some discourse features of student writing. System, 17 (1), 13-20.
Levy, M. (1990). Concordances and their integration into a word-processing environment for language learners. System, 18(2), 177-188.
Ma, K. C. (1993). Small-corpora concordancing in ESL teaching and learning. Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 16, 11-30. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 365 119)
Mpartusa, C., Love, A., & Morrison, A. (1991). Bringing concord to the ESP classroom. In T. Johns and P. King (Eds.), Classroom concordancing, ELR Journal 4, 115-134. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Heinle and Heinle.
Nunan, D. (1988). The learner-centered curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paribakht, T. S. & Wesche, M. (1997). Vocabulary enhancement activities and reading for meaning in second language vocabulary acquisition. In J. Coady and T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 174-200.
Read, J. & Chapelle, C. A. (2001). A framework for second language vocabulary assessment. Language Testing, 18 (1), 1-32.
Ruthven-Stuart, P. (n.d.). Glossary of terms used in concordancing literature and on this site. Download, 7/11/2001 [on-line].
Available: http://www.nsknet.or.jp/~peterr-s/concordancing/glossary.html
Ruthven-Stuart, P. (1999). Concordances: Production and use for teachers and learners. The Proceedings of the 4th Annual JALT CALL SIG Conference (pp. 177-181).
Someya, Y. (2000). Online business letter corpus KWIC concordancer and an experiment in data-driven learning/ writing. A paper presented at the 3rd Association for Business Communication International Conference, Doshisha University, August 9, Kyoto, Japan. Download, 7/26/2001 [on-line].
Available: http://www.kamakuranet.ne.jp/~someya/DDW-Report.html
Sun, Y. C. (1999). Web-based concordancing: Challenges and opportunities for English language teaching. The Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 517-526). Taiwan: The Crane.
Sun, Y. C. (2000). Web-based concordancer: A data-driven tool for language teaching. 第十七屆中華民國英語文教學研討會論文集, pp. 425-436.
Stevens, V. (1991). Classroom concordancing: Vocabulary materials derived from relevant, authentic text. English for Specific Purpose Journal, 10, 35-46.
Stevens, V. (1995). Concordancing with language learners: Why? When? What? CAELL Journal, 6 (2), 2-10.
Tribble, C. (1990). Concordancing in an EAP writing programme. CAELL Journal, 1 (2), 10-15.
Todd, R. W. (2001). Induction from self-selected concordances and self-correction. System, 29, 91-102.
REFERENCES
Abraham, R. G. (1985). Field independence-dependence and the teaching of grammar. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 689-702.
Brown, H. D. (1993). Principles of language learning and teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall Regents.
Butler, J. (1991). Cloze procedures and concordances: The advantages of discourse level authenticity in testing expectancy grammar. System, 19 (1/2), 29-38.
Chapelle, C. & Jamieson, J. (1986). Computer-assisted language learning as a predictor of success in acquiring English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 20 (1), 27-46.
Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition: Foundations for teaching, testing and research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, H. J. (1997). Data-driven learning via the World-Wide-Web and EFL writing. 第五屆語文教學研究與電腦資訊研討會, 政治大學
Chen, H. J. (2000). Developing a web concordancer for English as foreign language learners. Proceedings of International Conference on Computers in Education, 2000. Grand Hotel, November 21-25. Taipei, Taiwan. NTHU.
Cobb, T. (1997). Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing? System, 25 (3), 301-315.
Cobb, T. (1999). Breadth and depth of lexical acquisition with hands-on concordancing. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 12 (4), 345-360.
Flowerdew, L. (1993). Concordancing as a tool in course design. System, 21 (2), 231-244.
Flowerdew, L. (1998). Concordancing on an expert and learner corpus for ESP. CAELL Journal, 8 (3), 3-7.
Hale, G. A., Stansfield, C. W., Rock, D. A., Hicks, M. M., Butler, F. A. & Oller, J. W. Jr. (1989). The relation of multiple-choice cloze items to the test of English as a foreign language. Language Testing 6, 47-76.
Higgins, J. (1991a). Fuel for learning: The neglected element of textbooks and CALL. CAELL Journal, 2 (2), 3-7.
Higgins, J. (1991b). Which concordancer: A comparative review of MS-DOS software. System, 19 (1/2), 91-100.
Johns, T. (1991a). Should you be persuaded─Two examples of data driven learning materials. In T. Johns & P. King (Eds.), Classroom concordancing, ELR Journal 4, 1-16. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
Johns, T. (1991b). From printout to handout: Grammar and vocabulary teaching in the context of data-driven learning. In T. Johns & P. King (Eds.), Classroom concordancing, ELR Journal 4, 27-45. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
Kennedy, C. & Miceli, T. (2001). An evaluation of intermediate students’ approaches to corpus investigation. Language Learning & Technology, 5 (3), 77-90.
Kettemann, B. (1995). On the use of concordancing in ELT. TELL&CALL, 4, 4-15.
Download, 10/22/2000 [on-line].
Available: http://gewi.kfunigraz.ac.at/~ketteman/conco.html
King, P. (1989). The uncommon core: Some discourse features of student writing. System, 17 (1), 13-20.
Levy, M. (1990). Concordances and their integration into a word-processing environment for language learners. System, 18(2), 177-188.
Ma, K. C. (1993). Small-corpora concordancing in ESL teaching and learning. Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 16, 11-30. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 365 119)
Mpartusa, C., Love, A., & Morrison, A. (1991). Bringing concord to the ESP classroom. In T. Johns and P. King (Eds.), Classroom concordancing, ELR Journal 4, 115-134. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Heinle and Heinle.
Nunan, D. (1988). The learner-centered curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paribakht, T. S. & Wesche, M. (1997). Vocabulary enhancement activities and reading for meaning in second language vocabulary acquisition. In J. Coady and T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 174-200.
Read, J. & Chapelle, C. A. (2001). A framework for second language vocabulary assessment. Language Testing, 18 (1), 1-32.
Ruthven-Stuart, P. (n.d.). Glossary of terms used in concordancing literature and on this site. Download, 7/11/2001 [on-line].
Available: http://www.nsknet.or.jp/~peterr-s/concordancing/glossary.html
Ruthven-Stuart, P. (1999). Concordances: Production and use for teachers and learners. The Proceedings of the 4th Annual JALT CALL SIG Conference (pp. 177-181).
Someya, Y. (2000). Online business letter corpus KWIC concordancer and an experiment in data-driven learning/ writing. A paper presented at the 3rd Association for Business Communication International Conference, Doshisha University, August 9, Kyoto, Japan. Download, 7/26/2001 [on-line].
Available: http://www.kamakuranet.ne.jp/~someya/DDW-Report.html
Sun, Y. C. (1999). Web-based concordancing: Challenges and opportunities for English language teaching. The Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 517-526). Taiwan: The Crane.
Sun, Y. C. (2000). Web-based concordancer: A data-driven tool for language teaching. 第十七屆中華民國英語文教學研討會論文集, pp. 425-436.
Stevens, V. (1991). Classroom concordancing: Vocabulary materials derived from relevant, authentic text. English for Specific Purpose Journal, 10, 35-46.
Stevens, V. (1995). Concordancing with language learners: Why? When? What? CAELL Journal, 6 (2), 2-10.
Tribble, C. (1990). Concordancing in an EAP writing programme. CAELL Journal, 1 (2), 10-15.
Todd, R. W. (2001). Induction from self-selected concordances and self-correction. System, 29, 91-102.
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