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研究生:王嘉薇
研究生(外文):Sara Chia-Wei Wang
論文名稱:電腦課體發展及單字註釋
論文名稱(外文):CALL Courseware Development and Vocabulary Annotations
指導教授:葉由俐葉由俐引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:單字註釋感恩節電腦輔助語言教學
外文關鍵詞:vocabulay annotationsThanksgivingCALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning)
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本論文主要敘述包含感恩節課體之研發過程及三種多媒體電腦字彙註解對單字學習之研究兩部分。此三種單字註釋種類為文字、文字+圖像、和聲音+文字+圖像。單字註釋之有效度也許會因學習者個人之學習傾向不同而異,因此,實驗也試圖檢驗是否具某種學習傾向之學習者可從其相對之註釋種類獲益大。
本實驗使用自行研發之課體為實驗工具。課體介紹西方感恩節為主題,並以其主題為名,其主要內容包含感恩節的由來及相關之象徵物。在實際的課體研發前,經過目標學習者及學習方式的分析後,決定課體研發步驟為 (1)製作工具的選擇及建立架構,(2) 相關資料收集及將之加入課體中,(3) 單字註釋的設計,以及 (4) 第二個主要單元“相關單字”的增加。課體完成後,經過學習者評估,並根據其意見在實驗前作了修改。
實驗對象是2000年春天就讀於某國立大學之82位大一學生。實驗參與者在第一個實驗階段時先簽署同意書,並回答前測考題以及學習傾向的問卷。在第二個階段時,則各自瀏覽感恩節課體,回答後測及課體設計的問卷,和一些口頭晤談的問題。實驗的結果顯示,一般來說,第二種註釋方法─文字+圖像對單字學習最有效;聲音註釋則由於母語的影響及聲音註釋的速度太快而無法顯示其效果。學習傾向方面,參與者依在學習傾向問卷中之得分分成五群,分別是聽覺群、視覺群、文字群、圖像群及混合群。 其結果顯示學習傾向並不影響同單字註釋形態對單字學習之效能,其原因可能是每一個群的人數太少所致。
This thesis describes the development of a piece of courseware “Thanksgiving,” and the study of vocabulary annotations. The courseware introduces the origin and three related symbols of the western holiday, Thanksgiving. Instructional and learner analyses were conducted before the actual development of the courseware. The steps in developing the courseware were (1) the selection of authoring tool and setting up framework and modules, (2) the collection of information and adding it the body of text, (3) the design of vocabulary annotation, and (4) the addition of the second main unit “Relevant Vocabulary”. A formative evaluation and follow up revision were undertaken before the study of the effectiveness of vocabulary annotation.
The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of three types of vocabulary annotations on vocabulary learning and whether perceptual learning styles influence vocabulary learning as well. The three types of annotations were text annotation only, text plus picture, as well as text plus picture plus sounds.
The participants in this study were 82 freshmen in a national university in the spring of 2000. They answered the questionnaire for perceptual learning styles, and took the pre-test in the first stage. Then they viewed Thanksgiving individually. Finally, they took the post-test, answered the questionnaire about the design of the courseware, and some interview questions. The result showed that the version with text plus picture was the most effective. The comparingly lower effectiveness of thauditory annotation might be attributed to the influence of the participants’ mother tongue and the high speaking speed of auditory annotation. The participants were grouped into five categories of perceptual learning styles─auditory (A), visual (V), visual/nonverbal (V/N), visual/verbal (V/V), and mixed (AVN). Perceptual learning styles seemed not to have significant influence on the effectiveness of vocabulary annotation types of vocabulary learning.
CHAPTER
1.INTORDUCTION 1
2.LITERATURE REVIEW 4
The Value of Vocabulary Annotation 4
Empirical Studies of Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations 7
Perceptual Learning Styles 14
Native Language Influence 21
3.THE STUDY OF VOCABUALRY ANNOTATION TYPES AND PERCEPTUAL LEARNING STYLES
Participant 27
Learning Medium and Instrument 27
Learning Medium 27
Instruments 28
Research procedure 35
4.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THANKSGIVING
Instructional Analysis 38
Implementation 40
The Selection of Authoring Tool 41
The Collection and the Addition of the Body 44
The Design of Vocabulary Annotation 45
The Addition of the Second Main Unit 47
Detailed Structure and Content 52
Formative Evaluation 57
Preliminary Whole Courseware Evaluation 57
The Evaluation of the Unit “About the Holiday” 60
Reflections 61
Summary 66
5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Data Analysis 68
Effectiveness of Vocabulary Annotations 68
Perceptual Learning Styles 71
The Interview 77
Discussion 82
The Less Effectiveness of Dual Presentation +Audio Annotation 82
Preference on Chinese Interpretation 85
Comparison with Previous Studies 86
Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations 86
Perceptual Learning Styles 89
CONCLUSIONS
Concluding Remarks 93
Pedagogical Implications 94
The Limitations of This Study 95
Suggestions for Future Research 97
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
A. Units of Thanksgiving 102
B. Flowchart of Thanksgiving 103
C. Copyright Page 104
D. Main Menu 105
E. Menu of “About the Holiday” 106
F. Sample Pages of “Origin” and “Symbols” 107
G. Test Items of “Pre-Questioning” 108
H. Exercise of “Origin” of Thanksgiving 109
I. Exercise of “Symbols” of Thanksgiving 110
J. Test Items for Self-Check 111
K. Quit Page 112
L. The Format of Multiple-Choice in Exercise 113
M. The Format of Blank-Filling in Exercise 114
N. Positive and Negative Feedback of Multiple-Choice 115
O. Positive and Negative Feedback of Blank-Filling 116
P. The Three Versions of Vocabulary Annotations 117
Q. The Questionnaire about the Design of Thanksgiving 119
R. Dr. Kinsella’s Permission Letter 120
S. The Questionnaire of Perceptual Learning Styles 121
T. The Pre-test 126
U. The Post-test 128
V. The Scores of Each Participant 133
W. Learning Style Questioner by Lin and Shen 136
X. Random Assignment 140
List of Tables
4.1 The Result of the Questionnaire on the Design of Thanksgiving 60
5.1 Mean of Post Test 69
5.2 ANOVA on total score of post-test 70
5.3 Fisher’s LSD 70
5.4 The Distribution of Scores in Each Perceptual Learning Style 72
5.5 Mean Score of Each Group in Various Styles 73
5.6 The result of grouping 74
5.7 Mean and Standard Deviation of Each Group 74
5.8 ANOVA on the Interaction of Vocabulary Versions and Learning Styles 75
5.9 Summary of all Effects 76
5.10 Future analysis of AVN group 76
5.11 Mean Score of AVN Participants Gain in Post-test 77
5.12 Comparison of Previous Studies and the Present Study 89
List of Figures
Page
2.1 Summarized Figure of Dual Coding Theory 7
2.2 The Result of Survey in Lin and Shen’s study (1996) 17
4.1 The Still Picture for the Word “Reunion” 47
4.2 The Screen Layout of “Homes of Domestic Animals” 50
4.3 Sample Pop-out Window of “Homes of Domestic Animals” 51

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